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Tea ware used in infusion of tea method - Records about the infusion of tea in historical dates

In Yuan Dynasty, tea took the necessary position in peopled daily life, and there was a fashion, "weak up in the moring, there must be seven things you should do with, firewood, rice, cooking oil, salt, soy sauce, vinegar and tea."

The tea-drinking customs in Yuan Dynasty got a few changes based on the Song Dynasty, they drunk in different way with Dian and Decoct. Drinking dust tea as same as Song Dynasty, just sometimes they boiled tea and water together Ming Cha (hertb tea) always used in this way.

The scenes of Dian and Decoct tea were described for many times in the Yuan Qu( poetry).

The tea powder was placed in a tea bowl over which boiling water from an ewer was poured. The mixture was then stirred with a whisk. This way of preparing tea was known as the "whipped tea method".

This proved that tea-drinking still popular among folks in Yuan dynasty, as well as the boiling tea method.

The discovered fresco of Yuan's tomb in Yuanbao mountain of Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia, in July, 1982. And the fresco of Yuan's tomb in Shanzi mountain of Chifeng City, all painted the scene of tea-drinking, reflected the situation od people were drinking tea in Yuan Dynasty. The vessel in paintings included stone mortars, mullers, tea bowls, teapots, vases, tea spoon, etc.

The change of tea-drinking reacted on the Chinese ceramics. Green porcelain in south and white porcelain in north showed in Tang Dynasty, Lu Yu thought green was the best color for tea bowls, because it could add the tea's color, so he advocated green porcelain ware. The white porcelain made the tea soup appeared pink color and no taste, so he thought white porcelain was inferior.

When there were severe competitions in Song Dynasty, and black glaze calyx and kettle were often winners, which belonged to Jian kilns.

Went into Ming Dynasty, as the promotion and popularity of loose tea drinkings the utensils like teapot, cup and covered bowl became the main tea sets at that time. The Books and Records of Wanli's reign said, "September in 1391, because of the Emperor's order, people should hand in the tea shoot for the tea cake preparation. Until that time, tea cake waning, and loose tea became popular. The new method of tea-drinking came out, the corresponding tea wares must be produced. We could see this from the porcelain of Early-Ming Dynasty. The porcelain produced by Guan kilns much more fitable and earlier than any other material teapots.

It appeared the record of teapot for infusion of tea in historical dates until the middle of Emperor Wanli Period, Zhang Qiande wrote in his "Tea Records", teapot was narrow, too large to gather the perfume of tea. Guan, Ge, Xuan, Ding were better, gold and silver were inferior, no one will use the copper vessels for tea competitions." The teapot he mentioned in Tea Records was the pot for infusion tea, but a little confusion on the positions, was that Guan meaned Jingdezhen royal sites? Was the Ge meaning the Ge kilns? Was the Xuan meaning Xuanzhou kilns? Until now, still questions. Ding kilns were stopped at Yuan Dynasty. There still got an explanation that, Jingdezhen imitated the Longquan's green porcelain, also imitated green porcelain of Ge kiln in Chenghua Period, but the quality was not as well as Song Dynasty.

Let us talking about the books on tea product, collection, drinking method, it should be the "Tea Reports" written by Xu Cishu. In all aspects of tea activities were discussed in details in his book, especially on teapots." People used the Jim kilns such as hare's fur bowl for tea competitions in old time, until now, we use the pure white porcelain, and the smalt the best. The most expensive ware were Ding kilns, it's uneasy to get one. Xuancheng and Xiajing Periods, so many great kilns were imitated, they can be used. The good tea is not susceptible to other smells, so silver is first and tin is inferior. Real top-grade tin is not add black lead at all, because even clean water it also play a role on it Secondly, it must be glazed on Ixrth inside and outside, such as Chai, Ru, Xuan, Cheng, etc. Then pour the hotwater over pot, it will be broken and shame if it old porcelain. Recently the products of Rozhou are bot good for using. Now people cherish the Gong Chun teapot, the reason is it made by rude sand but without any sand smell Made as one wishes, it should be fired in high temperature make it exquisite, then could be taken out..."

Before-mentioned the silver was first, the tin was second, the pure tin was the best. Even the glaze porcelain teapots were also fine, but must be the Chai, Ru, Xuan (Xuande), Cheng (Chenghua)'s porcelain. And he mentioned the dark-red enameled pottery for the first time.

Later, Luo Bing wrote a book of "Explanation on Tea" talked about tea sets, "the wonderful thing is made by rade sand and fired as the dark-red, tin was inferior. "the boiling pot should be considered accompanied with the water injection rate." Small Ou is great, no necessory to find the ancient wares, Xuan(Xuande), Cheng(Chenglma), Jing kilns' porcelain already fine."

Wen Zhenheng in late-Ming Dynasty, talked about the tea-drinking and teawares, "If the tea without washing clean, it will affect the tea flavor, so it must be washed with clean dishcloth after dry, used for tea." "The tool should be sand for washing, shaped like a bowl, divided into two layers, upper bottom set several holes, used for washing scale, tea lees flow away through the hole, the most convenient came out."

"Furnace and vase. The furnace included cast copper fir furnace with gulosity face pattern and pure clean, also had tripod could be used. About the vase, lead is best, tin is inferior copper also line, shape should be like a bamboo, neither Dynasty, talked abouth the tea-drinKing and teawares, " If the tea without washing clean, it will affect the tea flavor, so it must be washed with clean dishcloth after dry, used for tea." "The tool should be sand for washing, shaped like a bowl, divided into two layers, upper bottom set several holes, used for washing scale, tea lees flow away through the hole, the most convenient came out."

"Furnace and vase. The furnace included cast copper fir furnace with gulosity face pattern and pure clean, also bad tripod could be used. About the vase, lead is best, tin is inferior, copper also fine, shape should be like a bamboo, neither fire, also easy to discharge the tea. Though the vase will not take the perfume of tea, but it is neither applicable nor in good taste".

"Teapot, tea bowl. Teapot should be sand made, neither take the perfume of tea, nor the smell of boiling soup, the most expensive was Gongchun. The shape should be simple and clean, it is applicable. Zhao Liangbi 's tin pot is good, and appropriate for using it in winter. Recently, the Gui tin in Wuzhong, yellow tin in Jiahe are small and meretricious. Gold and silver are not good for tasting." These four treatises on teawares were so different with each other on the material and size.

But with the growing popularity of the infusion of tea, the tea be considered as that eventually for everybody: "the teapot, But with the growing popularity of the infusion of tea, the tea be considered as that eventually for everybody: "the teapot, sandy for outstanding and cover definitely not save the sweet nor disapplicable. The sandy teapot means Yixing pottery teapot, and this opinion continued till today. When people want to infusion the tea, what they most think a lot of should be the teapot.

The development of teapot in Ming and Qing Dynasties, benefited from the scholars and the social stratas' participation. They put down their social positions, accompanied with the potters, participated in tea and tea production, with peopled ideological and aesthetic appeal, fond and favorite, such directly into the creation of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, made the developments of tea style got many characteristics as, aulic, religionary, intellectual and literary, nongovernmental, export, etc.

Teaware production in major kilns

Jingdezhen kilns

Xingdezhen porcelain production in Ming Dynasty, gathered the pomp of porcelain situations, had a title "artisans coming, thousands of devices to go". Palace set royal kilns in Jingdezhen to fit the internal and external consume and the demand and order of palace. Folk ceramics production had a great development with its unique natural resources and skilled craftsmen's skills in the original solid technical porcelain. According to the record of Song Ying-xing (Ming Dynasty) wrote Tian Gong Kai Wu (Exploitation of the Works of Nature), " a ware should be passed by 72 persons in one kilns, then could be the vessel." The splendid achievements made Jingdezhen Kilns in ceramics won the reputation of the "porcelain ceramic capital", also in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, porcelain standing its position in 540 years all over world.

(159) Blue and white three bamboo pattern pot, Yongle Period in Ming Dynasty, Height 11.4cm, wideth 4.1cm, bottom diameter 13 cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum Small mouth and round lip, short straight neck, plump shoulder, three equidistant circle ties set next to the shoulder and cover, compressed round belly, concave roundish feet in the big bottom. A tubular curl flow-mouth set on one side of shoulder, a bamboo shaped curl handle set on the other side. The cover was flat top and straight rim, blue and white pattern decorated the total ware.

This shape was the early shape at beginning of the prevalent of infusion of tea, still unmatured, the fully functional factors did ot show out. small mouth and long flow-mouth made using discommodious. The size of pot was appropriate, The whole shape of pot have dear distinction style on massiness and outgoing modelling with Yuan Dynasty, it was beautiful and light.

(160) Sweet white glaze monk's cap shaped pot, Yongle Period in Ming Dynasty. Height 19.7cm, wideth 16.7cm, bottom diameter 7.5cm, collected by National Palace Museum of China

This pot was an imitation of the Qingbai porcelain pot with monk's cap shaped mouth in Yuan Dynasty, the same height, a few changes on shape, thinner than former. According to the records of Ming History and the Ming Reports, Ming Emperor Zhu Di built Tianzhufeng of Zijin Ci, when he was a prince, he already heard a Living Buddha Tibetan monks named Halima. Zhu Di invited him when he became a ruler. When he performed the ceremonies, Zhu Di ordered people to make a set of monk's cap shaped pots to avoiding flaking out. After that, Halima was titled by "free Buddha11 and lead all the Buddhist. This type of pot were produced a lot at that time, since lots of imitations during the successive dynasties.

(161) The Blue and white porcelain pot with monk's cap shaped mouth and double dragon with lotus pattern, Xuande Period in Ming Dynasty. Height 22.8cm, wideth 18.1cm, bottom diameter 8.9cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum

The shape as same as sweet white glaze monk's cap shaped pot above, a few changes and lack of cover. Inside of the lip rim, it painted double dragon pattern and outside of lip rim painted with gyrophora pattern. The neck and flow-mouth were painted double dragon with lotus pattern, six swivel hooks pattern painted on the shoulder and an added lotus. There was a circle Tibetan language on the middle surface of belly, means, peace day and night, all the Buddha will protect you."12 petals pattern decorated the rim of bottom, branch of gyrophora pattern in petals, loral scrolls around the feet. The Qingbai porcelain seemed a little grey, the deep of pattern showed metal-brown crystal stains and brown green stains. The paste was hard and refined, pale orange between the paste and glaze, charactered "Xuande Period Made" on the bottom.

(162) Blue and white lotus pattern small seeds bowl, Xuande Period in Ming Dynasty. Height 6.1cm, wideth 10.1cm, bottom diameter 3.1cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum Round straight mouth, curl wall, deep belly, small roundish feet. Concave center of the bowl, convex of bottom, so called "chicken heart bowl' also because of the bowl looked like a lotus seeds shape, as named "lotus seeds bowl". Fret pattern all around the bow's lip rim outside of bowl, the overlap peach pattern decorative designs, floral scrolls around the bowl inside rim. The black brown stain putted on the dark blue and white porcelain. Because of the narrow feet, only used the regular script wrote the "Xuande Period Made" on the bottom.

(163) Blue and white circular dragon pattern pot with a loop handle, Longqing Period in Ming Dynasty. Height 30cm, caliber 10.5cm, bottom diameter 15.3cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Convergent upside and plump under-part, round belly, a little wide bottom with short feet. Two curl flou-mouth on one side of belly, a high loop handle setting on the shoulder, pressing the roundish cover. Four circular dragons decorated on the belly, gyrophora, old coins, sycees, corals and so on as "babao" (eight precious) pattems all arounding, the flow-mouth and loop handle were painted by tangled gyrophora, cloud pattern decorated on each side of neck and shoulder, doublw dragons on the surface, dense and thick. The shape of this one was dignified, of primitive simplicity, the paste was massiness and hard. Transparent both inside and outside, a little steel green in the white porcelain. The regular script wrote the "Made in Longqing Period of Ming Dynasty" on the bottom.

(164) Five color dragon and pheonix pattern with a loop handle, Wanli Period in Ming Dynasty, Height 22.3cm, collected by Shanghai Museum

Small mouth, inserted cover, round belly with melon muiti-prismatic shape. Two curls flow-mouth set on one side, a little squareness at upside. Red color-lines on the belly from lip rim to bottom, divided into eight petals, a dragon and a pheonix on the each petals upside down. The color of dragons and pheonixes were different, eight lotus petals painted on the lip rim with wishes pattern arounding were all the red and green as well as the white and blue color.

Before the Wanli Period in Ming Dynasty, shapes of teawares were not so many, but representatively. Maybe the boiling tea and Dian Cha method were an exceeding to the infusion of tea, so the loop handles basically came from the civil boiling method.

(165) Yeriow glaze loop handle pot with dark flower, Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 13.7cm, caliber 6.8cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Short neck, press cover, compressed belly, concave feet. Two curls phoenix pattern flow-mouth set on one side, an arch dragon pattern was the loop handle, the button on the cover was hollow-out line pattern. Yellow glaze all over the ware. The dark sea wave and flyer pattern decorated on the belly, cloud and morph Taotie ornamented the cover. No script on bottom. This ware imitated the shape of bronze vessels, the flow-mouth and loop handle were interesting, concrete pattern and dark decoration were comparative intensely, the function of compressed belly, wide mouth, loop handle were showing out in this pot.

(166) Blue and white underglazed red pot, Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 12.8cm. caliber 8.4cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Round belly, wide mouth, no neck, pressed cover, a little outwards roundish feet. Two curls short flow-mouth set on one side, a circle curl handle setting on the other side. Four convex white raised line design on the green rendering belly, every sing interconnected, as well as the roundish feet. There were four underglazed red peaches sitting on the cover, the peach and leaf were blue, they were comparative intensely. This style were so popular in Kangxi Period, viewed as color-vessels in teaware, means long live and best wishes.

(167) Five color flowers and fruits pattern covered bowl, Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 8.2cm, caliber 11.8cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Open mouth, deep belly, round feet. The cover was low with the roundish button. Dong celadon was the bed charge all of the ware, painted flower pattern in the center of bowl in which blue and white twin circles. Branches of fruit trees were painted outside of belly, use the dark brown glaze as edging, the decoration of cover as same as belly. The regular script wrote the "Made in Kangxi Period of Qing Dynasty" on the top and bottom with blue glaze.

The cover was smaller than the mouth, it was a new category dedicated for tea-drinking.

(168) Colour enamels glaze peony pattern square pot, Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 9cm, shoulder 7 cm X 8.9cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum

Copper paste, cover and flow-mouth and handle were squareness, four trapezoid upside down were jointed together forming the belly. Pale blue glaze in side of ware, yellow background of outside, the rectangular button on the cover was decorated as peony flower, the peony covering convex into petals, put the pink glaze on covered, involved peony decorated the shoulders kinds of peony flower painted around the belly, Concave bottom with the regular script wrote the "Made in Kangxi Period" duplicate rows in a square.

(169) Colour enamels glaze color chrysanthemun pattern square pot, Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 9.6cm, caliber 6cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum Copper base, compressed cover decorated by a bass-relief color chrysanthemum pattern, the charpiter button was the center of flower, the body of ware was square as well as the flow-mouth and handle, gilded roundish feet was chrysanthemum petals shape. Pale blue glaze inside of pot and neck, a chrysanthemum flower in each side of belly, the yellow ground and copper circles arounding the flowers as well as all arounding the outside of big patterns, chrysanthemum designs decorated the flow-mouth and handle. With the regular script wrote the "Made in Kangxi Period" duplicate rows in a square on the bottom.

(170) Colour enamels glaze pottery teapot, Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 9cm, caliber 7.37cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum.

Wide mouth, compressed cover, persimmon shape of the belly, short curl flow-mouth, circle shape handle. Flower pattern shape of the curl lip rim, round ball button, big flower decorated on the cover. Using the four color enamels glaze painted out four flowers in seasons such as green, yellow, pink, white. Concave bottom with the regular script wrote the "Made in Kangxi Period" duplicate rows in a square. The teapot was ceramic tea-pot of red porcelain, it maybe sent into royal production after fired in Yixing, and painted by the painter in royal court. Because of the color enamels glaze processing, it was less simplicity and more riches and honor. The paste was coordinated with the color enamels glaze.

(171) Colour enamels glaze pottery covered bowl, Kangxi Period in Qiug Dynasty. Height 9.1cm, caliber 5.3cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum.

Vertical puckered mouth, deep belly, outwards roundish feet. Low bowl shape cover and round button. The paste was purple granulated. Different kinds of color enamels glaze of peony, camellia, China rose, chrysanthemum indicum, etc all over the ware as well as the cover, written by the yellow material with regular script the "special for Kangxi use" on the bottom.

(172) Celadon teapot, Yongzheng Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 11.6cm, caliber 7.5cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Convergent mouth, interoceptive cover, growing big under the mouth, virtual roundish feet, Straight flow-mouth and curl handle on each side- The cover was bridge shape button. Green glaze all over the ware including the inside of feet. The regular script wrote the "Made in Yongzheng Period of Qing Dynasty" in the bottom with blue glaze, The shape was simple and dean, the vessels were regular in shape and evenly glazed, convenient and quietly elegant.

(173) Tea dust glaze teapot, Yongzheng Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 9.1cm, caliber 5.3cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum.

Wide mouth, compressed cover, round belly, virtual roundish feet. Two curl flow-mouth and circle handle on each side. A little convex cover and the compressed roundish button on the top. Tea dust glaze all over the ware, the surface of glaze was smooth and moisten. Firing turned the bluish green glaze slightly yellow, a little pale brown on the lip rim, flow-mouth, cover rim where the glaze was thin- The shape was simple and clean, no any the fifth wheel of a coach. The lip rim, flow-mouth and cover rim were in the geometric plane surface, so the function of infusion of tea were showed out completely. This shape always use till today.

(174) Colour enamels glaze twining stem and flowers pattern bowl with cover and tray, Qianlong Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 18.9cm, caliber of bowl 14.4cm, height of tray 6.1cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum

Copper base, the shape was bamboo hat, lotus petals shape of tray, open mouth, roundish feet. Relief sculpture of lotus pattern and peach shape bottom. Lake blue glaze inside of ware, lotus pattern painted on the yellow ground outside of ware, fret pattern decorated the roundish feet, the regular script wrote the "Made in Qianlong Period of Qing Dynasty" in the bottom with blue and white glaze.

The tray was six petals shape and high roundish feet. Lake blue glaze inside of the tray, accompanied by underlay, lotus pattern painted on the yellow ground, lotus pattern decorated the roundish feet, with unglaze paste, the reverse side of tray plate was lake blue glaze background, a regular script wrote the "Made in Qianlong Period of Qing Dynasty" with blue material on the rhombus petal.

(175) Inserted colour enamels glaze lotus pattern bowl with cover, Qianlong period in Qing Dynasty. Height 18.9cm, caliber of bowl 14.4cm, height of tray 6.1cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum

K gold base, open mouth, pendulous belly, round feet. Paste inside of the ware was uncovered, scared tiny raised line design, it could be seen clearly under the yellow transparent glaze, made of fine, durable. Relief sculpture of complicated lotus pattern took all the spaces of the ware, filled the red and green transparent glaze to fire. In the center of roundish feet, intaglio honor group long-lived was filed with red glaze and be fired, with a regular script wrote the "Made in Qianlong Period" in a blue frame.

(176) Colour enamels glaze purple rouge decorative cutting pot, Qianglong Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 11.8cm, caliber 6.9cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum

A little outwards straight mouth, round belly and feet. Two cure long flow-mouth on one side of the pot, circle curt handle sitting on the other side. Purple rouge glaze all over the ware- Scored a round transmutative banana leaf pattern on the shoulder, under part of belly, root part of flow-mouth. Scored a decorative cutting petal patterns on the cover and button as well as the rim of cover, a regular script wrote the "Made in Qianlong Period" in a blue frame on the bottom.

(177) Fencai (famille rose) yellow ground teapot painted landscape, Qianlong Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 15.9cm, caliber 7.5cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Squareness pot. Two curl long flou-mouth set on one side, circle roundish curl handle set on the other side. The cover was squared and convex, there were three-layer type structure transmutative banana leaf pattern decorated on the green ground on the cover. Outwards of squareness feet Roiled inlay the foreign flower pattern on the yellow famille rose glaze ground, painted plum blossom and peony in the frame, and the landscapes painted on the other sides fore and after, there was also a poem in the frame. Banana leaf pattern decorated a circle of roundish feet. A regular script wrote the "Made in Qianlong Period" in a kallaite glaze on the bottom.

(178) Blue and white porcelain eight treasures teapot, Qianglong Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 21.1cm, caliber 12.3cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum

The shape was imitated the He's shape of bronze vessels. Wide mouth, convex round shape of the cover, bridge shape button, compressed round belly, A short straight flow-mouth set on one side of belly, a circle handle on the other side. Blue and white glaze all over the ware, as the writhen flower pattern was major pattern, painted the writhen lotus and eight treasures pattern on the belly. Blue and white writhen branches covered the cover, a round fret pattern decorated the cover rim. Blue and white pattern filled with the flow-mouth and handle.

Dehua Kilns

Dehua kilns was a famous kiln that specialized in white porcelain making in Song, Yuan, Ming Dynasties. Its sites spread into the scope of today's Dehua County, in East China's Fujian Province. China's Hunan Province.

Dehua porcelain produced white porcelain and blue and white porcelain dates back to the Song Dynasty. What they produced in Yuan Dynasty were sold to abroad, it was during the Ming and Qing Dynasties that Dehua white porcelain gradually developed its own techniques and styles and enjoyed great development.

The quality of white porcelain was solid and smooth, shining and moisten, make it as a favorite of civil lovers. It was thus often called "lard white" or "ivory white" They were sold to the west country during Ming Dynasty, French called it as "Chinese white porcelain" or "Marco Polo Porcelain."

The most common objects of Dehua porcelain were a burner, cup, Zun (a kind of wine vessel), and Ding (an ancient cooking vessel), the masterpiece of Dehua porcelain was the white porcelain figure of Buddha. In fact, the porcelain figurine was also remarkably exquisite such as bodhidharma, god of longevity, Kwan-yin, Maitreya., they were all natural and vivid no matter the portraits or the spirits.

(179) White porcelain double coiled-dragon designs pot, Ming Dynasty. Height 12.9cm, caliber 8.5cm, bottom diameter 8.5cm, collected by Museum of Fujian Province.

This white porcelain pot displayed the specialty of porcelain. There were double coiled-dragon with different posture, one was opening its mouth as same function as flow-mouth, tense and natural, the other one was overhead hooking keeping a certain distance with pot body, just right for use as handle, the posture looked like hiding for the first dragon. It was cute and lovely, ivory white glaze all over the ware and the color was pure and clean, the paste was refined and spotlessly white.

Tixing Kilns

The Yixing Kilns next to the Taihu Lake, was one of the major production area which sited in the south of China's Jiangsu Province. The kiln's major product included vats, altar, basins, jars, pots, earthen pot, bowls, etc. Among the rest, the most famous was Zisha, or called as purple clay wares. Wen Zhenheng thought in bis book of Chang Wu Zhi in late-Ming Dynasty that, "teapot was as good as pottery, neither take the perfume away nor with the smell of hot soup." a The pottery was the Yixing pottery pot.

(180) Scepter border pattern big teapot, Ming Dynasty. Height 11.3cm, caliber 8.4cm, collected by Xishan City Committee for the Protection of Antiquities and Monuments

This pot unearthed from the Huancha family tomb area of Mr. And Mrs Hua Shiyin, which in the Caiqiao Village of Ganlu County in Wuxi Town, July, 1987. This a big size Dabin Zisha teapot, textural allure and refined, the flavorful delight dolor was hepatic. Compared to the today's the quality of the day, it was a little impurity. There were tiny blemishes on the surface after fired. The cover was convex round shape, decorated four petals of persimmon pattern, symmetrical distribution and exquisite processing. The body of teapot was sphericity, neat shape, slices connected with each other naturally and unartificially, but clearly in side of pot. Three curl flow-mouth and ring-shaped handle, three standings set on the bottom. The modelling of the pot was exquisite, full used of machining tools, on which technique lines, felt very good on tactility. It should be one of the best mature works in late-Ming Dynasty.

Exportation of Teapot

Since the Middle Ages, China was a mystery mid rich country in the European's mind, unique and free from vulgarity, but life was losting in this without religions, inviting happy atmosphere pervaded eternal heavens. Late in the 13th century, Marco Polo's eastern adventure stories also contributed to the illusions of the mystery about eastern world.

Hendrik Van Loon wrote in his book of The Story of Mankind, " My childhood, was just coming at the end of the popular for Chinese art style in Europe. At that time, each side of the nice-looking roads or canals were settled, often sitting a person in the teahouse, this was set up in accordance with the rococo style in China at the middle-18th century. "The teahouse always be full of people who wearing the Chinese silk gowns, taste the expensive Chinese tea primly." "In fact, the ethos of learning Chinese customs, started early, and can be traced back in 1667, the French King Louis XIV, attended a party to dress up oneself into a general looks like the Persians, general looks like Chinese at that time." From the Van Loon's writings we can know, at the time of Europe, if you couldn't use Chinese tea sets, you did not know about the rules of the China offices, if meaned that you were ignorance and you were lack of good upbringing.

The 17th century, accompanied with tea trade and the prevalence tea-drinking customs all over the European, China tea went into Europe. So today, no matter the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels, in Belgium, or in the British Museum, it is not surprising that they had collected so much Chinese teapots.

(181) Jomon pottery teapot, Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty, Height 14.5cm, collected by the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels, in Belgium

It was obviously that this teapot decorated with the Jomon pottery patterns was having exceptional finish for a Holland gentleman.

The handle, flow-mouth and its relief pattern of teapot were made by Jomon pottery shape. The part of inlaid the gilt bronze did not sign the characters of counting years, it should be processed after boating in Holland, The flowers and branches were painted by blue and white, red and green colors, as well as the Jomon pottery patterns was painted on purple color glaze.

(182) Twin flow-moth teapot, Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 15.5cm, collected by the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels, in Belgium

There was an interlayer between the twin flow-mouth teapot, you can infusion of two kinds of tea at same time. It was prevalent at that time, some Purple clay pot also did this kind of shape. The flowers and branches were painted by blue and white, red and green colors decorated the body of teapot. This decorations were manufactured as order as the guest of Euroupeans. Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 15.5cm, collected by the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels, in Belgium

There was an interlayer between the twin flow-mouth teapot, you can infusion of two kinds of tea at same time. It was prevalent at that time, some Purple clay pot also did this kind of shape. The flowers and branches were painted by blue and white, red and green colors decorated the body of teapot. This decorations were manufactured as order as the guest of Euroupeans.

(183) Holland inlaid decoration Chinese teapot, Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty, collected by the British Museum in Britain This shape imitated the Europe silver vessels, made the flow-mouth adgulated at 90 degrees. It was a product of Dehua kilns in Fujian Province, made for exportation. It was painted in Holland, portrayed a couple sitting next to desk on the balcony, flowers, trees, railings around them, decorative pattern on the rim. The major color was red and green colour enamels glaze.

(184) Twin crowned lions pattern teapot, Yongzheng Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 12cm, caliber of plate 22.5cm, collected by the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels, in Belgium

Overglaze colour enamels pattern decorated the whole set of vessels, twin crowed lions were holding the Dutch parliament badges , the brand of Dutch East Indian Company, painted the character as "CONCORDIA KESFA CKESCUNt 1728".

(185) Decorative porcelain French badges pattern teapot, Yongzheng Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 12cm, width 19cm, collected by the British Museum in Britain The shape imitated the shape of European silver vessels, for the European aristocrat customized tea vessels. Duke Hunis got this badges in 1724, he would bum in the emblem on tea vessels as a souvenir.

(186) Famille rose letters pattern caddy, Yongzheng Period in Qing Dynasty.

Height 11cm, collected by the British Museum in Britain

Manufactured for the European aristocrat customized tea vessels. Two transmutative letters C and K formed the initials and witty remarks, carved on the both side of the squareness caddy, rounding with baywreath and crown. There were flower pattern decorated on the shoulder of teapot.

(187) Tea vessels, Qianlong Period in Qing Dynasty, collected by the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels, in Belgium

These sets of vessels were completeness approximately, and very rare. The golden-coloured glaze, black-coloured glaze and kinds of colour glaze were painted the colour enamels pattern on all the vessels, and painted the scenery of riverside and distant view of town in the center of vessels. There were three persons with different postures on the riverside, surrounding with the irregular curl grass and bat pattern. There were curl grass flower pattern and four introducing the lights of petal shape as well as the four small introducing the lights of oval shape, the trees and branches of flower were painted in the frame.

(188) Famille rose glaze caddy, Qianlong Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 11cm, collected by the British Museum in Britain A set of six caddies were put in each tin box, the different names of tea were written on the cover, seemed like they were used for putting different kinds of tea. Chinese landscapes, flower and plants were painted on the caddy. These tea were famous tea for exporting to Europe, also maybe for putting the tea samples, and the tin box was used for keeping the tea perfume and xeransis.

(189) Blow bubbles painting teapot, Qianlong Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 13cm, width 19cm, collected by the British Museum in Britain

The shape of teapot was common extremely, painted the Rococo decorative pattern with two Cupid embracing together, focusing on another Cupid who was blowing bubbles, the bubbles flied to the top of pyramid. This pattern perhaps was painted by European.

(190) British royal badges colour porcelain teapot, Qianlong Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 16.8cm, collected by the British Museum in Britain

This kind of teapot painted with badges were used for the generations of British Kings from 1714 to 1801, not for any royalty especially. But there had marks of fraternal order under the badges with scroll work design. So maybe it also was made for some special group of the fraternal order.

In Ming Dynasty, the tea-making was prevalent in a period by the advocation of General Ashikaga Yoshimasa who adored the Chinese culture in Japan, so as to promote the communication on culture and arts of two countries between Chinese, Japanese (especially the porcelain ceramics),

At that time, many occasions prevailed the Chinese culture in Japan-They built lots of the Chinese style cockloft in the courtyards of royal court and palazzi, they were drinking wine, tasting tea, seeing and enjoying the flowers and Chinese calligraphy and paintings. The tea bowls, plates and so on were mostly the Chinese porcelains what they used on the party. These follow pieces of porcelain were made to measure for Japanese in China probably.

(191) Cizhou kilns tea bowl, Ming Dynasty. Height 5cm, caliber 15.5cm, bottom diameter 6.2cm, private collection in Japan.

Open mouth, curl wall, low belly, round feet. Painted the white engobe both inside and outside, the round bottom of outside was unpainted- A circle wide rust pattern decorated on the white wall with engobe, then painted some white glaze as quincuncial pattern. The method of decoration was so casual and no any similar decorative style was found in Chine inland. Maybe this was made in China to measure for Japanese subscribers.

(192) Red and green colored porcelain bowl, Ming Dynasty. Height 5cm, caliber 15.5cm, bottom diameter 6.2cm, private collection in Japan

Open mouth, round lip, curl wall, small roundish feet. The shape was similar to the alms bowl, not only bowl, also be called as "small alms". Red and green color pattern decorated the outside of bowl, painted a circle red ancient coins pattern on the lip rim, as well as the decorative Ruyi pattern near the feet round, painted the mountain, people, cloud, tree, on the belly. Inside of the bowl, it painted the complex cross pattern and clod pattern as well as the three parts of flower and grass pattern. The whole decoration was rude, bold and unconstrained. It was rare in China inland, so it could be a product for export.

(193) Tea bowl with painted rain hats, the late of Ming Dynasty. Height 8.8cm, caliber 13cm, bottom diameter 4.1cm, private collection in Japan.

A little outwards mouth, deep belly, irregular shape. This was manufactured by the China potter as the request of the Japanese subscribers from the Emperor Tianqi to Emperor Chongzhen period at late-Ming Dynasty, The style was very special, no matter in China or in southeast Asia or in Europe, At that period, Japanese potters always modeled as the Chinese traditional painting which came from Emperor Wanli and later period, so they placed orders to China buying kinds of teabowl, this was one of them. But the pattern of rain hats was a Japanese pattern, was made as the request of the Japanese guests and potters. Because this kinds of bowls were made in civil kilns, without high quality, some lip area got undone glaze of the under-glaze decoration called" wormholed", but they all be decorated by the rust color material and green glaze, really wasn't the " wormholed mouth".

(194) Tea bowl with painted landscape pattern, the late of Ming Dynasty. Height 8.7cm, caliber 13.9cm, bottom diameter 6.2cm, collected by the Commemorative Museum of Hatake in Japan.

Open mouth, a little outwards lip rim, curl wall, deep belly, high roundish feet. The quality of paste of paste was porcelain, there was tiny clay on the bottom, called "clay feet' According to the Xiaoshan Fushi's textual researches, this bowl was made by the Zhangzhou kilns in Fujian province. Painted with blue and white glaze of landscape, houses, towers, people, etc on the outside of bowl, puerile and clumsy on moving brush, black in the blue glaze, as well as painted the wooden bridge and rock arounding the rim of roundish feet. The style was so different with the Chinese blue and white porcelain paintings, so made as the request of the Japanese guests and tea lovers, and a few of good tea bowl around.

(195) Xiangrui (auspicious omen) teabowl, the late of Ming Dynasty. Height 7.6cm, caliber 9.2cm, bottom diameter 6.7cm, collected by the Nezu jinja Museum of Japan.

Straight mouth, deep belly, a little outwards big roundish feet. The shape of bowl was special, pattern decoration all over the ware, belt pattern in pale color painted under the lip rim, uninterrupted mountain pattern upside of the lip rim, twining stem of branches pattern painted on the body, kept roundish white points by means of top and new areas, decorated belt pattern in light color on the rim of feet with uninterrupted waves pattern as same as inside of the bowl. On the bottom, there was an inscription written as "Wuliang Dafu Wu Xiangrui Made", it should be a name of potter named Wu Xiangrui, so they called this bowl as auspicious omen tea bowl. In the book of Yuanzhou Cang Zhanng in Japan recorded as "Xiangrui tea napkin cylinder", it should be a Japanese order from China. What they had ordered were not only the auspicious omen tea bowl, but also the underglaze colour tea bowls.

(196) Wucai teapot, Ming Dynasty. Height 16cm, collected by Heting Museum in Korea

We see this shape, it should the early period that the infusion of tea method just became prevalent, small mouth, deep belly, rectangle flow-mouth with two bends set on one side of body, the handle on the other side was broken, it should be rectangle curl handle- Painted the design on tapestry-like ground on the belly of ware, there were rhombus reserved pattern on the ground at the front and behind as well as the bilateral side, painted a flower in the center Lotus petals pattern painted on the cover, as same as the abounding of downside of mouth and belly. This style was rare in China inland, should be manufactured for exportation.

The export of Zisha teapot mentioned in historical datas. In the early-70's of 17th century, Delft of Holland appeared the imitation of Yixing Zisha teapot.

In the late-17th century, the Ellers brothers manufactured the teacups and teapots who were bom in a silversmith family, used the red clay to imitate the Yixing Purple clay teapot.

Until now, we still can find the reflection of Yixing Purple clay teapot among the vessels and works of ceramists in many foreign countries more or less.

(197) Purple clay teapot, Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 16.8cm, collected by the Teathings Museum of Hongkong The Yixing Zisha teapot which exported to Europe got a common trait, most of all were light color of red clay, only a small minority of those teapot got the inscription of the name of potter; relief sculpture always decorated the surface, some were traditional Chinese style, some were the favourate style of European, This set of teapot was processing with customer's materials and made it, some of the accessory fittings were added after modeling.

(198) Famille rose Zisha teapot, Qianlong Period in Qing Dynasty, Height 20.5cm, width 18cm, collected by the Teathings Museum of Hongkong

The famille rose decoration of the Zisha teapots got the effection from the decoration style of porcelains obviously. At the early time of famille rose Zisha teapot, the flower pattern was major decorative technique, very flamboyance, and worked neatly. This kind of teapot were made for exportation, to fit the requirements of foreigners. The conventional famille rose decorations were landscape in the traditional vessels of China, they used the bluish, green, yellow, red, white and black for painting, the realm was high and elegent, villages in the mountain, small boats in the wafer, lived in a peaceful privacy and tranquil environment, got too much differences with the export Zisha teapot.

(199) Purple clay teapot inlaid copper and tin, Qing Dynasty. Height 9.5cm, width 18.4cm, collected by the Teathings Museum of Hongkong

This kind of technique was packaging signal bronze. Only difference with the Zhushimei packaging tin pot was, the former was packaging all the ware around, the latter used the hollow-out pattern packaging the teapot, including the mouth, cover and ties, showed out the great measure for protecting the ware.

This technique was created by the people of Weihai, Shandong Province in late-Qing Dynasty, they transported the well teapot to Weihai for further processing, and sell to abroad. The Chinese and English inscriptions were covered on the bottom as "Wei Tongqing made in Weihai".

Teaware Made by Folk Kilns

Folk kilns were relative to the official kilns and royal family kilns.

Folk kilns got the indispensable position in the history of Chinese ceramics development, they also were the basic of official kilns.

The products of folk kilns included different various sorts of life goods. The potters put their favors, spice and sentiments, notions, ideas, etc in life into the ceramics. By the production of products, others used, themselves also used.

Folk kilns products while there was no way to compared with official kilns, but the rich of themes, paintings, materials and methods, even did not get bogged down in the object image details.

Let's look at the blue and white ware of folk kilns in Jingdezhen, it was casual and free, as pleasure and random, painted out a big world in two or three brushworks.

Due to the Yixing Zisha teapot, there were kinds of different poses, sizes and darling vessels were produced and meet with the peopled favorable consideration.

The teawares in folk kilns were even more brilliant.

(200) Blue and white porcelain pot with a loop handle, Wanli Period of Ming Dynasty. Height 13.5cm, caliber 8.6em, collected by Capital museum of China

Round belly, plum shoulder, straight mouth, pressed cover, deep belly, roundish feet, soft loop handle. A tubular two cur! flow-mouth set on one side of the shoulder. Blue and white pattern decorated all the ware with a little convex cover, the cover painted a picture that two people sitting and playing chess, design on th tapestrylike ground pattern painted on the shoulder and belly, reserved pattern in front and behind, a girl paying in it, painted the transmutative lotus petals near to the bottom feet. The color was flamboyant, shined blue in th white glaze. Inscrinpted the characters as "Made in Wanli Period of Ming Dynasty".

The shape of belly was hexagon, fold shoulder, straight mouth, pressed cover, deep belly, hexagon round feet. The connection of profile and one side was set a rhombus flow-mouth with two curls on the belly, put the loop handle on the shoulder, a little convex cover, columniform short button, painted simple patterns on the cover and shoulder, the landscape painting were decorated on the six profiles of belly. Maybe because of the hard molding technics of squareness, the shape was irregular and rude, but modelling was out of shape liberally, the visual effects were still good.

(202) Guangjun glaze of Shiwan kilns teapot with a loop handle, Jiaqing Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 14.8cm, collected by the Guangdong Museum.

Compressed roundish belly, straight mouth , round shoulder, pressed cover, nail standings. A tubular two curl flow-mouth set on one side of the shoulder, put the loop handle on the shoulder. A little convex cover, small roundish button. Three nail standings set on the bottom. Guangjun glaze all over the ware, Compared between this shape and the other material vessels, it seemed a little corpulence and undainty, but it was convenient for use in fact.

(203) Guang color octanhedral teapot, Guangxu Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 23.5m, caliber 7.9cm, collected by the Guangdong Museum.

Straight mouth, folded shoulder, washer shape of the pressed cover, octanhedral belly, eight feet inlaid into the belly at downside, A hexagon flow-mouth with two curls was setting on one side of the belly, a copper soft loop handle was put on the both side of flat shoulder. The fan treasures and flowers decorated the whole ware with pealike color.

(204) Fencai (famille rose glaze) pepple pattern teapot with a soft loop handle, Guangxu Period in Qing Dynasty. Height 9.5m, caliber 5cm, private collection.

Short straight neck, inlay cover, folded shoulder, compressed tubular shape of belly, flat bottom, A tubular flow-mouth with two curls was setting on one side of the belly, two hole small ties were put on the folded shoulder, with two lines of copper soft loop handle. Painted people and pine on the belly. What they painted the people, the postures and countenances were vivid and beautiful in colors even though in few and far between brush and strokes.

(205) Chrysanthemum pattern round teapot, the period of the Republic of China, height 9.5m, caliber 5cm, private collection.

Straight mouth, smooth shoulder, waher shape of the pressed cover, deep roundish belly, round feet. It imitated the Yixing Zisha teapot, but a few differences on shape, A tubular flow-mouth with two curls was setting on one side of the belly, two hole small ties were put on the folded shoulder, with two lines of copper soft loop (205) Chrysanthemum pattern round teapot, the period of the Republic of China, height 9.5m, caliber 5cm, private collection.

Straight mouth, smooth shoulder, water shape of the pressed cover, deep roundish belly, round feet. It imitated the Yixing Zisha teapot, but a few differences on shape. A tubular flow-mouth with two curls was setting on one side of the belly, two hole small ties were put on the folded shoulder, with two lines of copper soft loop handle. Painted the white engobe on the surface of ware, then glaze the green color, ink powder color chrysanthemum pattern, the brush and strokes were casual and free, the tines were smooth and mellifluence, connected the profiles and lines, got the wonderful view effects, belonged to the common teaware in villages.

(206) Blue and white twining stems of branches pattern pot, the period of the Republic of China, height 21m, caliber 8cm, private collection.

Straight short mouth, smooth shoulder, roundish belly, wide rim and washer shape of the pressed cover, ball point decorative pattern painted on the center and rim of the cover, a short flow-mouth with two curls was setting on one side of the belly, four small ties used for putting the soft loop handle which were put on the shoulder, decorated the pattern all around the belly, the twining stems of flowers upside, transmutation lotus pattern downside, as well as the raised line designs painted on the shoulder, middle part of the belly and the roundish feet, to distancted the frame. The shape was cute and nature, belonged to the common teaware in villages.