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Tea-Dinking Method and Teawares in Song Dynasties

The Song Dynasty (960-1279) followed Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms in China. The period is divided into the Northern Song (960-1127) in which the Song controlled both Northern and Southern China and when the capital was Kaifeng in AD960, and the Southern Song (1127-1279) in which the Song lost control of Northern China to the Liao Dynasty later replaced by the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) in 1125, the Mongol incursions and the concluding chapters of the Song Dynasty and they retreated south of the Yangtze River to form its capital at Hangzhou. It called Southern Song Dynasty in history.

The Song Dynasty is notable for the development of cities, not only for administrative purposes but also as centers of trade, industry and maritime commerce. The landed scholar-officials, sometimes collectively referred to as the gentry, lived in the provincial centers alongside the shopkeepers, artisans, and merchants. During two hundred year of the Song dynasties, handicraft industry and domestic and foreign trade boomed. According to Menglianglu, a book recording the folk customs in the Song Dynasty (960-1127), "there were multitudes of successful small kilns and pottery shops owned by local families, along with oil presses, wine-making shops, small local papermaking businesses, etc." There was also room for small economic success with the "inn keeper, the petty diviner, the drug seller, the cloth trader." and many others. Although lots of government run industries and a lot of privately-owned enterprises dominated the market system of urban China during Song Dynasty, there was a plethora of small private businesses and entrepreneurs throughout the large suburbs and rural areas that thrived off the economic boom of the period.

Tea-drinking fashion of Dian Cha method, became popular among folks in the Song dynasty, and there were a lot of porcelain wares that produced tea sets. Tea is the object of past scholars praise and description. Large tea parties were also held in the palace during the Song Dynasty, with the emperor serving the tea.In all ages there are numerous poems, paintings, and calligraphic works about tea. For scholars, tea is noble and leaves much room for reflection, embodying high morality. Especially the Zhao Ji, Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty, was a tea connoisseur, he also wrote a book named "Da Guan Cha Lun" (Treatise on Tea).

There were many historical datas described the tea-drinking fashion among the common people such as the literature of Dong Jing Meng HuaLu. Teahouses were opened at five o'lock and closed at three o'clock no matter on the roads or the streets. Menglianglu also had the similar records, foodshop in capital are hanging the famous painting to make of the Yangtze River to form its capital at Hangzhou. It called Southern Song Dynasty in history.

Wang Anshi who lived in Northern Song Dynasty said in his "Lin Chuan Ji" tea was used for people, we need it equal to the salt and rice what we need everyday." This not only popularized tea, it also elevated tea’s value and improved the development of tea sets." Reputed as the greatest calligrapher of Song Dynasty, Cai Xiang was also a great tea connoisseur. He also wrote the Cha Lu-first tea treatise of the Song dynasty during the reign of Chingli (1042-1048) Tea Notes is the first tea treatise of the Song dynasty. Emperor Huizong provided the most detailed, vivid and masterful description of the Song dynasty technique of tea spotting competition. The Emperor also laid down seven criteria for tea competition. Emperor Huizong Da Guan Cha Lu (Treatise on Tea) is a key document for understanditig the most sophisticated tea ceremony in Chinese history. It stands as the monumental treatise on tea after Lu Yu's Classic of Tea.

Pictorial of Tea Ware compiled by The Old Man Shen'an in 1269. It is the earliest pictured book on tea ware used in preparing Song tea cake for drinking. This book described 12 tea wares. The same what they described were the tea sieve, tea hammer, tea spoon, tea cup, tea grinder. The different what they described were the tea stove, tea press, spoon, tea brush, tea tray, tea kettle, tea swiper, tea napkin.

1. Tea stove: the sets for baking tea, made by bamboo, a cover on it to guard against fire leak, a interlayer in the middle of ware, charcoal fire can be put on the lower band, to make tea keep its color, aroma and taste in normal temperature.

2. Tea cage: the sets for keeping and storing tea cake, includes lacquer casket and bamboo made round box wares.

3. Tea hammer: the sets for crumbling the tea0 an anvil and a hammer. Put tea into the wooden anvil, use the hammer crumble it, similar function with the mortar and hammer, this is the first step to grind tea.

4. Tea seal: the sets for firing tea, use it clamp tea cake into the fire conveniently.

5. Tea press: tea need to be grinded after hammered, then became to the tea powder, similar to traditional Chinese medicine grinding base.

6. Tea sieve: to filter the impurity and coarse particle of tea.

7. Tea cup: tea bowls, almost used the black tea bowls in Competition Tea activities in Song Dynasty.

8. Tea swiper: this was the major utensil for fighting tea in Song Dynasty. Spoon was used in early period, swiper was used in later, and didn't use spoon any longer for Dian Cha.

9. Tea kettle: also be called tea vase and used for boil water. The royal aristocrats often used the golden kettle, the civilian always used the silver, metal, pottery stone and something like these material.

10. Spoon: bailed vessels, always made by bamboo.

11. Tea grinder: almost made by stone, , they also used the grinder to grind tea except tea grinder base from the late-Nothern Song Dynasty.

12. Tea swiper: the sets used for cleaning and organizing the tea powder.

13. Tea tray: a subordinate vessel for putting cups. Almost made by silver and porcelain, there was a lacquer tea-tray in Southern Song Dynasty.

14. Tea napkin: for cleaning the teaware.

These were the mentioned Dian Cha method and Competition Tea Activities ware in which Cai Xiang's Cha Lu, Emperor Huizong's Da Guan Cha Ln (Treatise on Tea), Old Man Shen'an's Pictorial of Tea Ware. Also, there were some other sets related to tea activities such as lee funnels, draft furnace, tea basket which appeared in historical datas and paintings of Song Dynasty.

15.Lees funnel: a container which put between the teawares for tea-leaf.

16. Draft furnace: the necessary set of furnace for boil water, always appeared in the paintings without record in lea books of Song Dynasty, There are many modelling.

17. Tea basket: the gets for keeping and storing tea cake, made by bamboo. No record in historical datas of Song Dynasty but there were ligneous sets in Qing Dynasty palace.

All these mentioned sets could stand for the all wares which used in Dian Cha method or tea competitions in Song Dynasty. But it can be also divided such categories as follow in accordance with teaware faction;

The sets used for packing and storing the tea cake: tea stove, tea cage;

The sets used for grinding the tea cake and herb tea: tea hammer, tea seal, tea grinder, tea press, tea sieve, tea swiper;

The sets used for Dian Cha method car Competition Tea Activities: tea kettle, gongfu tea cup, tea swipes tea spoon, tea napkin.

Song Dynasty was the most prosperity period of ceramic porcelain history of China. The change of life. Lifestyle changed, the developing needs of overseas trade, to make the space of porcelain product expanded and thousands of north-south kilns opened. There were Ru kilns, Jun kilns, Ding kilns, Yaozhou kilns, Cizhou kilns, etc in north China, there were Guan kilns.

Yueh kilns, Longquan kilns, Jingdezhen kilns, Jian kilns, Jizhou kilns, Ou kilns, Fanchang kilns in the south of China. The so-called "Five Great Kilns" including Ding, Ru, Imperial, Ge and Jun kilns were the cream of the crop. Meanwhile, the Cizhou kilns in the nouthern, Jizhou kilns in the southern and some other folk kilns with its simplistic and elegant designs, captivating colors and an infinitely varied crystallization and crackling patterns, was well-known throughout the nation.

Ru Kilns

Ru kilns were one of the "Five Great Kilns" in Song Dynasty, they considered it as the top.

The Ru kilns produced porcelain for only a short years. In the Late-Northern Song Dynasty. Jin Dynasty invaded, and they retreats south of the Yangtze River. Therefore, porcelains made by the Ru kilns for the imperial court known today are few and rare piece of treasure less than 100 specimens in existence today.

The Ru kilns produced porcelain for the court and the rest of the time was devoted to porcelain ware for average citizen use. In court Ru kilns, the base of porcelain was hard and refined, most of paste was perfect grey. The rare agate was used in Ru Porcelain, the color is special such as skyblue, verdent green, etc, the most expensive was azure. They changed with the light. Looking at the color of glaze, it is just like the sky after raining, it is gentle, smooth, simple and unsophisticated. Touching the surface of glaze, it is smooth and fine, it is like beautiful jade, the surface of wares shows the small flakes like cicada's wings. Since these porcelains were fired while on extremely thin supporting stands, the back sides of most Ru Wares had three to five very small bum marks. The major shape included bowls, plates, brush pots, etc.

It was a long history of kilns ware system for average citizen use. It lasted for a long time, and got rich products which concerning on printing and checkering decorations to satisfy the peopled daily needs at that time.

According to the specimen of Qinghliangsi Temple kilns which provided by Baofeng town. It proved that he Ru celadon wares were the court kilns ware by countercheck and all archaeological excavations of Shanghai Museum and Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology.

(89) Azure cup-tray, Song Dynasty, caliber of tray 16.8cm, collected by England David of Chinese Art Fund Meeting.

Convergent mouth, the rim of tray was big and wide, six petals of sunflower pattern, a little outwards of roundish feet, thick and moisten azure glaze like a jade, finely broken ice crackle all over the ware.

Cup-tray was made up by cup and tray. The style of cup-tray was sured during the tea-drinking fashion in Southern and Northern Dynasties. Along with the prevalent of tea-drinking in Sui Tang and Five Dynasties, a little change on the form of cup-tray, tray got higher and to diversify gradually. Tea fashion was more prosperous in Song Dynasty, many different forms, styles, each had its own characteristics.

(91) Lavender grey glaze cup-tray, Song Dynasty. Height 4.8cm, caliber of tray 5.8cm, collected by Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology.

Tray was hem-rim, low belly, wide roundish feet. Convex rongd shape of tray standing, the lotus shape of cup looked like upsiade down, it's special, lavender glaze all over the ware with the tiny chip patterns, as well as the perfect grey paste of roundish feet. This one used the color of southern kilns, then decorated with the painting flower techniques, so it was ware in Ru kilns.

Jun Kilns

The Jun kilns were one of the "Five Great Kilns" in Song Dynasty. Its mysterious and unpredictable colors have gained the love of the people during its time, Tang Dynasty, Nanzhuo wrote his Jie Gu Lu, there was a record of "Lushan colored porcelain": not the Qingzhou pottery, just the Lushan colored porcelain. In 1977, missionary of Museum of Beijing the Imperial Palace found pieces of the black bule stain waist drum in the Duan dian kiln sites of Lushan, prced the trueth of Nanzhuo and his Jie Gu Lu. After the Jin and Yuan Dynasty, the manufacture of Jun ware continued in and around Henan. 1965, The flower pots and other porcelain vessels for the imperial court; complete sets of these in varying sizes and shapes, with serial numbers inscribed on the bottom, have been unearthed at the Bagua Cave kiln site in Yuxian County, also, was the court Jun kilns of Northern Song Dynasty.

The products of Jim kilns were civility, simple and elegant, the quality of paste was compact, often used for the royal court. Vessels included flower pots, washers, dishes, censor, bowls, zun and etc. Some of the flower pots/stands have number (1-10) carved on their base such as sunflower, lotus, Chinese flowering apple, hexagonal, squareness, rectangle, etc. It has been established that the number is an indication of the size. Jun kiln used iron and copper oxides to fire an opacified bluish glaze with red, copper-red, chicken red, eggplant purple, parrot green or purple splashes, which contained large amounts of copper oxides. Fired with reduction (cooler) flame, the copper in the glaze became an iridescent (unstably bright) red furnace-transmutation color (color changed by furnace heat) appeared on the glazed surface.

(92) Azure accidental colouring red variegated bowl, Song Dynasty. Height 8.7cm, caliber 15.2cm, bottom diameter 4.6cm, collected by Taipei's National Palace Museum.

Convergent mouth, roundish lip rim, curl wall, deep belly convergent below, a small round feet. Celeste glaze all over the ware, accidental colouring big red variegated speckles. This one was fired for twice, added copper oxides as coloring agent when the paste was dry and fired foe first time, as the chemical components in the basic glaze, the temperature and atmosphere were all sensitive factors, as the crackle glaze, this defect in firing technology turned into a kind of rich and unique decorative language, as most of the coloring was done through a natural process to make the two color mixed and accident changed. The shape of this one was simple and unsophisticated, great impact and delicate, as the new shape of the teabowls in Song Dynasty.

Store in Kaifeng

Outwards mouth, long neck similar to the loudspeaker, hem shoulder and deep belly, a little convex in the belly and melon shape. A long tube form flow-mouth on one side of shoulder, compressed annular handle on the other side which connected the neck and belly. Feet was round. Thick sky blue glaze all over the vase and feet, and luminous. "The ware was similar to the vase which mentioned on Hie Liu Songnian's MING YUAN DU SHI TU in Song Dynasty. It should be used for Dian Cha method.

(94) Moon white glazed purple stain bowl with lotus pattern shape, Song Dynasties. Height 4.8cm, caliber9.5cm, bottom diameter3.5cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Ten petals pattern od mouth, convergent mouth, curl wall, ten petals divided the total shape into convex and concave pattern straightly, roundish feet. Anomalous purple stains decorated the moon white glaze, like the cloud flying in the sky, afloat, gleamingly, gave us infinite imagination.

(95) Sky blue glaze cup-tray, Song Dynasties, Height 5.6cm, caliber5.9cm, bottom diameter 4cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Tray was tied in cup. Convergent mouthy curl wall, deep belly and lean bottom, midheaven of the roundish feet. Sky blue glaze all over around except the paste feet, well-proportioned and clean of the glaze surface, exquisite thechniques, this should be the perfect teaware in that time. Lip rim of cup and tray was brown yellow where was thin glazed.

(96) Sky blue glaze purple stain bowl, Song Dynasties. Height 5.6cm, caliber5.9cm, bottom diameter 4cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Convergent mouth, curl wall, deep belly and round feet. The sky blue glaze was grounding both inside and outside of bowl, rose purple patches, the weak points and strong glaze make up for a deficiency for single shape. Brown rim where the glaze was thin and no glaze feet, so it was belong to the civil Jun kilns ware.

Ding kilns

Ding ware was the finest porcelain produced at northern China in Nouthern Song Dynasty, after the fast development in late-Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, was the first to enter the palace for official imperial use. On this basis, they much more concerned on the decoration of surface, in addition to changing the shape of wares and innovation. This product was still with the white porcelain as the best of Ding kilns, a great number of white glaze decorative cutting, painting porcelain wares were produced, be stand for the northern kilns. It reached immense popularity during the late Northern Song because of its consummate technics, Jingdezhen and Ru kilns or some other kilns were all influenced. Plates, bowls and brush pots or round wares became the main production, vases and bottles were less, The ivory tone of the glaze was the result of firing in oxidation atmosphere. The Chinese scientist showed that after the ivory tone shards are re-fired under reduction atmosphere, the tone of the glaze became a light bluish tone, The inherent problem of warping when firing the thin Ding bowls and plates in upright position prompted the potters to look for solution. The potters devised the method of firing the vessels upside down. To do so, it is necessary to scrap away the glaze on the rim so that they do not stick to the saggar. This method enables the spreading of the weight of the vessels over a wider area and solve the problem of warped vessels. An added advantage is that it increases production volume. But there came another question that no glaze on the rim, so they had to use the inlay decoration with gold, silver, copper or something to fit the nick which they called as "Mang Kou", and the wares were called gold button, silver button, copper button.

The color of Ding kilns' glaze was stable at that time, a little teeth white, mostly, The shining gentle and high transparence to make the decorative cutting and painting decoration were easy. Compare to the early time, The products of white porcelain declined at late- Northern Song Dynasty and Jin Dynasty.

(97) White glaze sunflower pattern bowl, Song Dynasty. Height 8.1cm, caliber20.4cm, bottom diameter 6.2cm, collected by Museum of Jiangyin City.

Convergent mouth, a little curl wall, low belly and round feet. There was a concave straight lines under the sie petals of sunflower pattern. Grass dragon grains carved on the center of bowl, lively and vividly, white glaze all over the bowl with thin paste, dense, moist, smooth and refine.

(98) White glaze lotus petal pattern bowl, Song Dynasty. Height 8.1cm, caliber20.4cm, bottom diameter 6.2cm, collected by Museum of Jiangyin City.

Convergent mouth, curl wall, deep belly, round feet. There were three layers of lotus petal patterns around the outside of belly, convex in the middle of petals. Dragon pattern carved on the center with nature and fluency White glaze all over the ware and a little yellow in white, it was gentle color of paste.

(99) White glaze cup-tray, Song Dynasties. Height 6.5cm, caliber 8.6cm, bottom diameter 8.2cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

The upside of cup-tray was straight mouth, outwards round feet, fret pattern decorated the rim of cup as same as inside of the rim. No glaze on the lip rim of tray with copper button, white glaze all over the ware with a little yellow, the color of glaze was gentle. The sharp contrast of copper button and white porcelain was not excessive, got the perfect visual impact.

(100) Painting lees funnel, Song Dynasty, Height 7.4cm, caliber 17.8cm, bottom diameter 4.6cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

The shape of upside of lees funnel seemed like a piatter, thin roundish lip, convergent waist. The below of lees funnel was tubular without pattern. Two series of paintings in the plat, the flower pattern and lines were natural, The shape was a new different with other kilns ware. White glaze all over the ware, a primrose yellow between the thick glaze, moisten hard and refined.

(101) Purple Ding cup-tray; Song Dynasty, Height 7cm, caliber 6.3cm, bottom diameter 5cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Convergent mouth, wide rim, high roundish feet and a little outwards, brown glaze all over the ware, a little change on the surface, be called with "purple Ding".

Cup-tary was a prevalent teaware in Song Dynasty, it related to the tea-drinking fashion during the that time, they all produced no matter northern or southern kilns, shapes were different even though manufactured by a same kiln site.

(102) Purple glaze bowl with printing pattern, Jin Dynasty. Height 4.7cm, caliber 17.1cm, collected by Museum of Jilin Province.
Yaozhou Kilns

Yaozhou established itself as the greatest Northern Celadon (greenware) production centre where were belonged to the Yaozhou during the Northern Song Period. The most famous was the Huangbao site at Tongchuan Shanxi. Its golden age till the reign of Jingkang in the Northern Song Dynasty. According to the historian datas and archaeologists' measurement, Yaozhou kilns produced porcelain for the royal court from Yuanfeng of Emperor Shenazhong the Zongning of Emperor Huizong (1102-1106).

The prodcucts of Yaozhou kilns were celadon mostly at early of Song Dynasty, and always for daily life with clean surface and less decorative patterns.

In the middle period most porcelain vessels had thin bodies and were evenly graceful olive green glaze. The surface of glaze was moisten and transparent like glass. The celebrated Song poet Lu You said in title second volume of his Notes in an Old Scholar's Studiothat Yaozhou celadon was similar to "Mi Se" ("secret color") porcelain of the Yuezhou kiln in East China's Zhejiang Province. The patterns of interlocking blossoms and plucked sprays of flowers were widely used, the best being peonies, chrysanthemums, and lotus flowers. Impressed designs were also very popular during the middle period, and those covering the entire vessel inside and out were exquisite. Designs included flowers and grasses, fish, ducks, dragons, phoenixes, ocean waves, and floating douds, etc.

In the late period of Yaozhou kilns, the major color of it still was olive green ware as well as some black glaze, dark brown glaze and some crystallize glaze porcelain. The color of paste changed a little, most of all were grey white or French grey. The proportion of shape raised more than mid-period, and more concerned on the the exquisitely lovely modelling and elegant decoration.

It continued to be produced during the Ming period. As the most famous kilns in the northern, its decorative art was very influential in the development of Song arts and crafts, to formed a Yaozhou-type regard it as the center all over the around kilns.

(103) Printing small bowl, Song Dynasty, Height 5cm, caliber 11cm, bottom diameter 3cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Open mouth, small roundish lip, deep belly, round feet. There was a decorative pattern which wore six lotus flowers convolving together in the bowl, connected by a wave, a round chrysanthemum pattern in the middle of bowl. Straight lines carved by gullot tooth of nicking tools, it felt nature and not deliberate neatly, the color of glaze changed because of the deep and shallow lines, then got a perfect visual effect.

(104) Green glaze printing peony pattern vase, Song Dynasty. Height 25.4cm, bottom diameter 8.8cm, collected by Museum of Yaozhou Kilns.

Pipe socket mouth, weltered curl lip, high neck, sidelong shoulder, deep roundish belly, closure feet, A tubular flexual long flow-mouth set on one side of shoulder, single handle connected the lip-rim and shoulder on the other side. Twin ties was decorated by the sceptre border applique pattern on the other symmetrical side. Part of peony pattern printing all over the belly, tiny raised line design were on the neck and shoulder. Green glaze all over the ware with a little blue green, just like drenched the colour. The color of feet was French grey without glaze, fine texture.

(105) Green glaze printing chrysanthemum pattern lees funnel, Song Dynasty. Height 6cm, ealiber 6cm, ealiber of rim 15.4cm, bottom diameter 3.5cm, collated by Museum of Yaozhou Kilns.

Convergent mouth, big wide rim, convergent beck, short oblate belly, low wide feet. There were printing chrysanthemum pattern between the big open rim and small mouth. Blue green glaze all over the ware well-proportioned, clean and shining, feet and around show the French grey paste, it was compactness. The shape of this lees funnel was simple and clean. exquisitely patterned and exquisitely made.

(106) Green glaze cup-tray. Song Dynasty. Height 3.5cm, caliber of tray 4.3cm, plate diameter 13.3cm, bottom diameter 3.5cm, collected by Museum of Yaozhou Kilns.

Plate was wide rim, convergent lip, convex in the center of bottom used for holding the straight mouth and low bottom of tray. Six sunflower patterns pressed on the rim of tray and plate, they were corresponding. Blue green glaze all over the ware with slime on the bottom. Grey paste was dense quality, no decorations.

(107) Black glaze porcelain cup, Song Dynasty. Height 4.9cm, caliber 14.9cm, bottom diameter 4.4cm, collected by Museum of Yaozhou Kilns.

Open-mouth, sidelong curl wall, small roundish feet outwards, short and thick feet wall was scraped for twice, base was thick and blacke glaze was so black and shining, thin glaze on the lip rim, a little brown actually. The rude terreous white paste was thick and compact.

(108) Black glaze porcelain vase, Song Dynasty, Height 24.6cm, caliber 5.4cm, bottom diameter 12cm, collected by Museum of Yaozhou Kilns.

Straight mouth, thin long neck, wide bulging shoulder, a round raised line design on the shoulder. Round pendulous belly, with outwards feet- A tubular flexual long flow-mouth set on one side of shoulder, single handle connected the lip-rim and shoulder on the other side. Scraping the glaze to show the paste out and pour into black glaze both inside and outside. It was thick on the upside of belly, a little brown on other position. Brown stains and plaques on the surface, shining the metal luster. Sand grey paste included some black impurity, quality was tender.

(109) Brown glaze porcelain cup-tray, Song Dynasty. Height 4.3cm, caliber of tray 5.7cm, bottom diameter 4.9cm, collected by Museum of Yaozhou Kilns.

Convergent mouth of tray, round lip, oblate roundish belly, canulate without bottom, mouth of tray higher than mouth of plate. Open plate mouth, low sidelong belly, high round feet, straight feet wall Brown glaze all over the ware with black stains. The grey paste of tray mouth and feet were showed out, and quality was rude.

(110) Green glaze decorative cutting peony writhen pattern vase, Song Dynasty. Height 29cm, caliber of plate 15cm, collected by National Museum of Tokyo, Japan

Pipe socket mouthy tighten neck long and melon prismatic belly, plump shoulder, small round feet. A tubular flexual long flow-mouth set on one side of shoulder, single handle connected the lip-rim and shoulder on the other side. Decorative cutting peony writhen pattern all over the belly and shoulder, there were many bow string patterns in the middle of belly to The plate and the vase were a pair, the shape and decoration could stand for the highest level of Yaozhou kilns as well as porcelain of Song Dynasties. Datas showed that they unearthed at Korea, and maybe sent as gifts to Korea royal court from China.

About this pair of vessel, some datas didn't announce the function of this plate, vase just used as teaware. But if we put them together, pull hot water into plate, get some wine in vase, the function will be clear that, for keeping warm.

caliber of cup 5.2cm, collected by History Museum of Shanxi Province

This vessel was collected by cup and tray. Cup was a straight mouth, roundish iip and belly, with wicker grain outside of the wall, similar to the barnacle used before. Tray was flat rim and straight wall, with modeling lotus pattern around the tray.ali the shape was bold within the refine details, the processing of wicker grain was harmonied with the lotus pattern.

Cizhou Kilns

The main Cizhou kilns ware the biggest civil kiln in the Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty, No any records in Song Dynasty historical datas until the Ming Dynasty. Archaeological investigations found two center locations of the Cizhou kilns over a large area -one was the Guantai Town of Cixian, the other was the Pengcheng Town in Handan City. There were so many broken specimen under earth in these two kilns.

Cizhou kilns inherited the characters of northern kilns of Tang Dynasty, got lost of plenty varieties of production, there were still scratched pattern, carved flowers, green stains, brown stains on white glaze except for white glaze and black glaze. There maybe dozens of categories besides all above.

White glaze with underglaze black colours was the major decorative method of Cizhou kilns, also, it was the top quality of Cizhou kilns.

It included all the life good ware in Cizhou kilns, more representative vessels were porcelain pillow, the shape were rectangle, ellipse, shallow ovals, round, cinquefoil, etc. The method of decoration was, put a set of white paste on the shaped unburnt earthenware, painted the pattern with tiny black stuff, then sketched the contour lines and petals and leaf on the black decorations with cuspate instruments, scored out the black stuff to show the white paste, then painted the transparent glaze on the ware, it would be perfect after it was been fired no matter the black or the white.

(112) Black flower bowl, Jin Dynasty. Height 4.5cm, caliber 12.7cm, , bottom diameter 5cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Open mouth, curl wall, low belly, roundish feet. White glaze all over the ware with unglaze feet, it was the terrous paste. Black bow string patterns decorated the center of bowl, a character as "HUA" (flower) was inside of the pattern. It was a casual character but had adornment effect extremely.

(113) White glaze bobwl with black flower, Jin Dynasty, Height 7cm, caliber 11cm, bottom diameter 6cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Convergent mouth, deep belly, roundish feet. White glaze all over the ware with unglaze feet. Black porcelain with and flower pattern decorated the outside of wall, simple and clean, casual and smooth lines, Black and white reveals elegent spirits.

Ge kilns

The Ge kilns had always been a mystery in the ceramic history. Literally means 'big-brother' ware was mentioned for the first time in "Zhi Zheng Zhi Ji" of Kong Qi in Yuan Dynasty. In the early-Ming, Cao Zhao composed "Gegu Yaolun" always mentioned 'big-brother' ware. In the "Xuande ding yi pu" written by Lu Zhen who was an official in Xuande Period, he thought Ge kilns was distinctly inferior to Jun, Ding kilns.

It was said that Ge kilns were at Longquan, or in Hangzhou, or Jingdezhen. "Guang Yi Zhi" (Observations in the Realm) written by Wang Shixing in Wanli Period of Ming Dynasty said "Guan, Ge two of kilns fired under the Phoenix moufttain in Song Dynasty, purple moth and metal feet. Now sand was ending, thes could not to own anymore."

Zhang Fukang's book "the science of Chinese Old Porcelain" did lots of chemical analysis on paste of Ge kilns, conclusion was three areas existed lots of differences obviously.

Li Jiazhi edited the book of Ceramics in The Chinese Science and Civilisation analysised, " If only started from the raw materials with problems, it was possible that began to fire the porcelain of Ge kilns, Guan kilns, Ru kilns and Linru kilns at same time, It means that the probability of Ge kilns and Guan kilns in Northern Song Dynasty produced ceramics together could be much higher than produce porcelain with Jingdezhen, in Jiangxi Province." "Also, it could be made use of parts of raw material which introduced from Henan which produced Ge kilns ware in Hangzhou and Guan kilns in Northern Song Dynasty, instead ofmade in Longquan kilns or Jingdezhen ware." instead ofmade in Longquan kilns or Jingde So we have reasons to believe that the so-called Ge kilns ware was just a species of Guan kilns products."

Recently, there is a statement sure about the Ge kilns, so I copied, " I think this layer of kiln sites was theGe kilns which troubled for ceramics and archaeologist, namely, the product of Ge kilns were the imitation of Guan kilns which was imperial kilns in Northern Song Dynasty after the Northern Song Dynasty perished."

The major products of Ge kilns were vases, furnaces, brush pots, and kinds of bowl, plates, the shape was clean and neat with exquisite technics. Most were small.

(114) Sunflower pattern bowl, Song Dynasty. Height 4.8cm, caliber 11.8cm, bottom diameter 3.8cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Open mouth with six petals pattern, inlaid copper button on the lip-rim, low belly, curl wall, round feet in the bottom. Greyish green glaze all over the ware with black chip on the surface of glaze. Naturally decorated with tiny chip inside of bowl. The decoration of Ge kilns had varieties of chip, such divided by color as spun gold metal lines pattern, fish pattern, pale yellow pattern, eel pattern, black blue pattern; such divided by shape of chip as tiny pattern, plum blossom pattern, nets pattern, ice crackle pattern, big and small pattern, they were been called "Bai Ji Sui".

Guan Kilns

Guan kilns can be further categorized into Northern Song Dynasty Guan kilns and Southern Song Dynasty. Guan kilns refer to official kilns directly run by the government, and the products of which were exclusively supplied for the imperial courts or governmental officials.

According to the record of Zhai Bi Heng" written by Ye Zhi who lived in Song Dynasty, " In the Reigns of Daguan, setted up in the capital to manufacture porcelains. They ware called Gnaxi (government) kilns."In Random Notes While Basking in the Sunby Gu Wenjian of the Song Dynasty: "In the Reigns of Zhenghe and Xuanhe, potteries were set up in the capital to manufacture porcelains. They were called Guan (government) kilns." Although there were a little difference on the beginning time, all belonged to Emperor Huizong of the late-Song Dynasty.

Guan kilns were fade away with the perish of the Song government after the Jin Dynasty was coming. The actual kiln site has not been discovered, due perhaps to geographical changes in the vicinity of Kaifeng where throughout time, the sediment deposited by the overflowing and shifting Yellow River had buried the civilizations. Furnaces, vases, pots, jars, bowls, plates, basins, bursh pots and some other official vessels were the major product due to the unearthed ware. The colors of base were white, grey, red, etc. The white base of porcelain was always be protected paste feet with black glaze with metal quality material. The best base was moon white color, fen qing (pale blue) took second place, then sky blue, green blue, green, etc. The glaze as thin as a paper, the chip pattern such as ice crackle, crab feet, plum blossom decorated the surface of glaze.

Dynasty. Height 4.4cm, caliber 11.5cm, bottom diameter 3.8cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Open mouth with six petals pattern, curl wall, low belly, round feet. Glaze all over the ware both inside, outside and the center of bottom, thin glaze on the lip rim to show the paste. With net pattern chip on the surface of glaze.

(116) Cup-tray, Song Dynasty, Height 6.5cm, caliber 8.6cm, bottom diameter 8.2cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Convergent mouth of tray and cup, big and wide rim of tray, a little outwards round feet. Moon white glaze all over the ware, as rich and lustrous as fat, free and smooth. with ice crackle pattern.

After the collapse of the Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gaozong of the Southern Song Dynasty moved his capital to Linan (present-day Hangzhou). The royal court set the system of the former capital and two government pottery kiln sites in Hangzhou where the royal family continued its life of luxury. One was located at Xiuneisi, an office for the maintenance of imperial buildings, including imperial kilns, its product called the Gnan Ware of Xiuneisi. Random Notes While Basking written by Ye Zhi recorded the Guan ware of Southern Song as follows: , fPotters wash the clay and make molds out of it. The glaze color is lustrous and transparent The vessels are treasured by people all over the country. The other kite site was on the capital's outskirts, and it was as big as former." Due to the record and Hangzhou's archaeological discoveries in recent years, the unearthed wares of the Guan Ware at the foot of Tortoise Hill in Hangzhou, as same vessels shape as the Ru Guan Kilns and Guan kilns of Northern Song Dynasty. Due to the archaeological discoveries of Tiger Cave site in Phenix Hill of Hangzhou, it also proved that "the unearthed wares of Guan kilns in the Southern Song Dynasty took over the system porcelain production technology of the former capital." There was no doubt that two kiln sites existed in the Southern Song Dynasty, There were thousands of hundreds of pieces of porcelain unearthed from the Tiger Cave site in Phenix the number of rchealed could reached more than 800 pieces, the categories as much as over 20, major productions were vases, pots, jars, bowls, plates, basins, bursh pots and cup-trays, etc, as life goods, as well as some sacrificial vessel. The color of paste of unearthed broken vessels were black and ash color, the major color of glaze was Fenqing(pale blue), beige took second place.

(117) Cup-tray, Southern Song Dynasty. Height 6cm, caliber 7.6cm, bottom diameter 6.9cm, collected by Historical Museum of Hangzhou City

Convergent mouth of tray and cup, knife-edged roundish lip, curl wall- big and wide rim of tray with six petals pattern, a little outwards high round feet Fenqing (pale green) glaze all over the ware with chip pattern, as rich and lustrous as fat, free and smooth, the color of base of feet was deep grey, and it was thin. This shape was similar to the azure cup-tray of Ru kilns which collected by England David of Chinese Art Fund Meeting.

(118) Small bowl, Southern Song Dynasty. Height 5cm, caliber 11cm, collected by Historical Museum of Hangzhou City

Straight mouth, small round lip and bottom which connected with curl wall. The shape is simple and unique, unconventional in the other kilns. Grey green glaze all over the ware, caky clay permeate on the surface of glaze, the layer thin. The color of the base was deep grey, with small bum marks of supporting stands m the bottom.

Yueh Kilns

In the early period of the Nothern Song Dynasties, Yueh kilns had lots of categories of products, the color of paste was grey more than Five Dynasties, thin and transparent glaze were always green grey. Round feet got higher, belly of bowl was pendulous, outwards round feet no matter plat, cup tray, basin, brush pot or lamps. The fashion decoration on the surface was slim flower incised lines, a little were scored incised lines. To the middle of the Northern Song Dynasty, the workmanship was not as good as before even though so many productions, slim flower incised lines continues prevalent Signs of decay came quietly. Then, the mass production started shrinking, product quality was dropping sharply. The baking, decoration, manufacture were tend to careless, some ware changed high to short, the belly of vase seperated into six parts with massive incised flower lines, The quality of vessels were bad because of thethchnics which used seggar and fired on the open flame.

(119) lotus flower pattern vase, Late-Tang Dynasty. Height 23cm, collected by Shanghai Museum

Pipe socket mouth, high neck, sound shoulder, melon prismatic belly with spherical upside and convergent downside, small round feet. A tubular straight short flow-mouth set on one side of shoulder, a tabular ring-shaped handle with twin lines connected the lip-rim and shoulder on the other side. Decorative cutting flower pattern on the belly, the frame was casual and spry. There was characters engraved on the right of belly as "Hui Chang Qi Nian Gai Wei Da Zhong Yuan Nian San Yue Er Shi Si Ri Qing Ming", "Hui Chang Qi Nian" was AD847. it was as a same year as11 Da Zhong Yuan Nian so it could proved that this vessel was the work of late-Tang Dynasty,

It was rare of engraved the exact calendar on the unearthed vessels. Buie green glaze all over the ware and it's clean and well-proportion. the shape and decoration complete same with the unearthed ware in Shanglin Lake, so it should be the standard vessel shape of Shanglin Lake's products.

(120) melon prismatic vase, Five Dynasties. Height 22.2cm, caliber 9.8cm, bottom diameter 9.8cm, collected by Ningbo Committee for the Protection of Antiquities and Monuments

Pipe socket, high a little thin neck, smooth shoulder, melon prismatic belly with spherical upside and convergent downside, a little outwards short roundish feet. A little curl flat flow-mouth on one side of the shoulder, a compressed curt handle was put on the other side. Full of hard green glaze, moisten and shining. Paste was grey white it was the typical shape of vase in Five Dynasty.

(121) vase, Nothern Song Dynasty. Height 22.2cm, caliber 9.8cm, collected by Ningbo Tianyige Museum

Pipe socket, trunk neck, wide shoulder, round belly and convergent under-part, round feet. A curl tubular flow-mouth on one side of the shoulder, a compressed curl handle was put on the other side connoted the upside of shoulder and neck. There were twin ties sculptured as a animal with opened mouth and wide-open eyes on each symmetric side. A hole in the head of animal statue. Curl grass pattern on the shoulder and a convex raised line design stacked at the comer of shoulder, two lines at the concave area of melon prismatic belly divided six parts from top to bottom, Green blue glaze all over the ware, it added decorative pattern compared to the vessels of Five Dynasties.

Above three mentioned vessels stood for the three different style of works in late-Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties, Nothern Song Dynasty. Concerned on decoration in late-Tang Dynasty, changed higher and taller in Five Dynasties, a little shorter and wider vessels in Nothern Song Dynasty. The same point was the melon prismatic belly, just difference on manifestations.

(122) lotus pattern bowl, Southern Song Dynasty. Height 5.8cm, caliber 12.7cm, bottom diameter 5.3cm, collected by Xinchang Committee for the Protection of Antiquities and Monuments, Zhejiang province

Open mouth, round feet, deep belly, thin roundish feet. Five petals pattern shape of lip rim with five straight lines ending to the bottom. Special shape and green glaze all over the ware. Maybe earthed for a long time, so many sticky clay on vessel made it seemed unlike the glaze color of Nothern Song Dynasty.

Generally, it was thought that from Eastern Han Dynasty to Jin Dynasty were the founding and development period of Yueh kilns, Tang to the Northern Song Dynasty were the heyday. After the Southern Song Dynasty, it declined and stop gradually. Because of the kiln has unique natural resources and the advanced porcelain technics, remote away from middle plain and battlefield, life was stability relatively, and the boundary conditions of quick carriage for ceramic to go all over the world. For the generations, transformations of the kiln man to effectively control structure, the furnace temperature, overcome the defects of glaze materials, product has occasioned the royal court's favor and made it come the first step to the world. Finally, the kiln for its natural resources shortage and backward and hidebound technology, especially the kingdom of Wu and Yue countries1 destruction and lost its rights, quietly disappeared on the Shanglin lake.

Longquan Kilns

The Longquan Kiln, located in Longquan County a remote area in Zhejiang Province, is one of the most famous kilns in the Song Dynasty, This place was a bumpy road transportation, development was slowly. Also in this place had lots of the mountains and rivers, dense forests, porcelain clay mineral resources, etc.

However, the Oujiang river regions in the Eastern Han Dynasty, not late already manufactured successful wares, a mature celadon was producted between the kiln system gradually during the Six Dynasties. There were only quietly small-scale production at this place. Longquan celadon made rapid progress in the Song Dynasty due to its close contacts with commercial cities and towns as well as with foreign trade after the royal family moved to the south of China. Then it became the representative kilns of south porcelain kilns, and went to the peak.

here were wide distribution range of very periods of Longquan kilns, more than 400 sites. Because of the lack of historical datas, it had a scientific knowledge of the development of Longquan kilns until now. In the Early-Northern Song Dynasty, the major products of Longquan kilns were drinking vessels in daily life such as bowls, plates, jars, flowerpot, and bottles, etc. The pale grey white paste and pale green glaze was thin and similar to the Ou kilns ware it maybe impacted by Ou kilns.

Into the mid-Northern Song Dynasty, Ceramics of Longquan kilns has begun to form a scope, bluish yellow glaze porcelain took place of the pale green glaze porcelain. The usual products were bowls, plates, jars, flowerpot, vases and bottle. also the drinking vessels. The paste was pale grey or grey, thin and well-proportion. lined shape and took a serious attitude on throwing and trimming. Pay attention to the decoration. gave priority to carving and engraving. The major patterns were flower such as painting of flowers, lotus petals, writhen branches, etc. Into the Sorthern Song Dynasty, the center of economy, politic moved to south, and peace society, Longquan could got a chance to develop quick in a short time with the economic prosperity of south- But the Yueh kilns, Wuzhou kilns and Ou kilns were comedown closely follow after.

(123) Celadon lotus petal pattern bowl, Southern Song Dynasty. Height 7.8cm, caliber 15.4cm, bottom diameter 5.3cm, collected by Quzhou City Museum, Zhejiang Province

Open mouth, curl wall, small round feet Engraved lotus petal pattern outside of the wall, convex in each median ridge of leave pattern. Plum green glaze both inside and outside, moisten as jade. Vermilion paste of the unglaze round feet was refined, the paste of bowl was white and subtle. The technology of production was exquisite and aesthetic.

(124) Vase, Southern Song Dynasty, Height 17.3cm, caliber 7cm, bottom diameter 6.3cm, collected by Longquan City Museum

Plate mouth, high neck, plump shoulder, a little outwards round feet. Several raised line design on the root of neck and shoulder. A tubular curl flow-mouth on one side of shoulder, twin compressive roundish curl handle which connected the neckl and shoulder. There were two symmetrical roundish circle ties between the flow-mouth and handle. Long twin lines started from the top to bottom carved on the belly and divided belly into four pieces, Pale green glaze all over the ware.

(125) Celadon cup with rain hat shape, Southern Song Dynasty. Height 4.6cm, caliber 12.4cm, bottom diameter 3.3cm, collected by Museum of Guizhou Province.

Wide mouth, sidelong wall, small round feet, shape was similar to the rain hat, no pattern. Turquoise glaze all over the ware, crystal like a jade, chip pattern on the surface. Simplicity, clean and elegance.

(126) Lotus petal cup tray, Nouthern Song Dynasty. Height 6cm, caliber of tray 5.1cm, bottom diameter 7.3cm, collected by Longquan City Museum

The tray was similar to the lotus, decorated double flower petals around. A little narrow of the plate rim, writhen tiny lines on it, five curl petals of the rim. Round feet was a little outward. Pale thin glaze all over the ware. The shape was quite squareness, but still had shadow of Yueh kilns ware.

(127) Melon multi-prismatic vase, Southern Song Dynasty. Height 16.5cm, width 12.4cm, caliber 3.5cm, bottom diameter 8cm, collected by Longquan City Museum

Small single mouth, no neck, smooth shoulder, deep belly, belly was melon multi-prismatic shape. Six lines from top to end carved on the belly to seperate belly into six parts. A long curl flow-mouth on one side of shoulder, twin roundish circle handle much higher than mouth. Greenth glaze all over the ware and six lines were a little convex which was white, as we called "Chujin". The shape got strong personality extremely, similar to celadon melon multi-prismatic vase which collected by Palace Museum of Beijing and the white porcelain vase which unearthed at Shuiqiu tomb of AD901 in Mingtanshan of Lin'an. They were all the melon multi-prismatic vase, did not sedulous on pursuit of realism, especially when the treatment, used the flow-mouth can control the water, the function and advantages of factors have embodied thoroughly.

(128) celadon tea bowl, Southern Song Dynasty. Height 9.6cm, caliber 15.4cm, bottom diameter 4.5cm, collected by National Museum of Tokyo, Japan

Wide mouth, a little curl deep shape belly, round feet, six petals shape of lip rim. Green glaze both inside and outside, a solid jade dense material and moisten.

The tea bowl should be the products of peak period of Longquan kilns. It was said that late Ping'an Period in Japan(AD794-1184), this was the gift for which Emperor Yushan bestowed gold to Japan, the later Zu Li Yi Zheng(1436-1490) fondle it admiringly. Because there was a chasm on the bottom, then be sent back to Ming Dynasty royal family to restorate, after fixed it with wheeling craft and sent back to Japan again. If there was no chasm, it should be "National Treasure" today.

(129) Green glaze bowl, Yuan Dynasty Height 6.4cm, caliber 16.5cm, bottom diameter 5.9cm, collected by Museum of Zhejiang Province.

Wide mouth, kipp rim, curl wall, round feet, Pale steel grey glaze all over the ware, besprinkled with brown tiny crackled pattern. The paste of unglaze feet was thick.

Jingdezhen Kilns

Xinpingzhen was the earliest name of Jingdezhen, also called as "Changnanzhen"

The name of Jiangdezhen was so clese to the procelain ceramics. According to the record of Jiangxi Tong Zhi, "set this town in Jingde Period of Song Dynasty. Order the magistrate hand procelain onto royal court to meet the required of government, and characted as "Jingde" which was the time of produced." Then all the people called it as Jingde town, the name as "Changnan" was weared away.

Jingdezhen sited at lower-altitude foothills, was surrounded by mountains, dense forests, abundant natural resources were near, the traffic was convenient, the size of the mainstream Changjiang river in Jingdezhen town to bring so much convenient for porcelain industry, also brought a thousand years of flourishing.

Jingdezhen became one of the country. most famous kilns in Song Dyansty and Yuan Dynasty for its unique Qingbai porcelain. Because its color of glaze were blue-green and white mixed, blue-green was in white hue, white hue was in blue-green, so we called as "Qingbai", also called if as "Yingqing".

The technic of porcelain production in Jingdezhen was matured in Song and Yuan Dynasties, kiln sites all around which manufactured lots of wares such as bowls, plates, pots, vase, jars, furnaces, sculptures, etc. In the Unearthed "yingqiug" porcelain vessels, there were a great number of shapes which imitated on the metal wares, the typical was melon mufti-prismatic vase, included wine vessels and teaware, decorative method had painting, engraving and printing. The tray got a mass production, from undecorated to decorated, with lots of shape. Qinghua(blue and white) appeared in Yuan Dynasty, the quality of products improved step by step. The base of ware were hard and tense, thin and light. In Yuan Dynasty, parts of them got thicker glaze than before. In the early time of Song Dynasty, the color of glaze shing a little yellow in the blue-green, in the middle, white hue in the blue-green, shining and transparent, water green glaze where the glaze assembled, white hue where the glaze was thin. A little green in the late period.

(130) Qingbai porcelain bowl, Nouthern Song Dynasty. Height 6.1cm, caliber 11.7cm, bottom diameter 3.3cm, collected by Zibo Museum of Shangdong Province Wide mouth, sidelong wall, deep belly, knife-edged bottom, high roundish feet seemed like rain hat. Qingbai glaze all over the ware with unglaze feet. Decorative line design were on the bottom and belly wall, the score was extremely fine lines. The shape of this bowl was a new style, there was a similar bowl in the Bei Cha Tu which painted on the wall of Liao Period Tomb in Xuanhua.

(131) Qingbai melon multi-prismatic vase, Song Dynasty. Height 23.5cm, caliber 5.7cm, the Capital Museum

Wide open mouth, high neck, narrow in the middle of neck, plump shoulder, , melon prismatic belly. The surface of cover was concave, shape was flat rim plate, a button in the center. A thin long curl flow mouth on one side of shoulder, a compressed handle which connected lip rim and shoulder, circle ties both on the cover and handle. Qingbai glaze all over the ware, moisten and transparent. This one's shape was similar to the vase in the Emperor Huizong's "Wen Hui Tu".

(132) Qingbai porcelain cup-tray, Northern Song Dynasty. Total height 6.6cm, caliber of cup 10.7cm, bottom diameter of tray 8cm, collected by Museum of Jiangxi Province

Flower shape mouth, curl wall, horn feet. The tray was wide rim flower shape and low plate pattern, a small plate in the tray, the bottom of tray was the tray standing, fit to put the teacup. This set of cup-tray was new and unique design and a new style of Northern Song Dynasty.

(133) Qingbai glaze cup-tray, Northern Song Dynasty. Total height 8.1cm, caliber 7.2cm, bottom diameter 10.8cm, collected by Museum of Jiangxi Province

The tray was wide rim flower shape and low plate pattern, low belly, setback type roundish feet. Back-off cup inside of feet, the bottom of cup was the tray standing, out cup on it. This process was coarse, glaze layer was thin with bad texture glaze.

(134) Qingbai glaze lees furnace, Song Dynasty. Height 8.3cm, caliber 14.7cm, collected by Museum of Nanchang

City Wide mouth with pipe socket, narrow neck, fat belly. Qingbai glaze all over the ware, the color was warm and moisten with finely broken pattern.

(135) Qingbai glaze cup, Northern Song Dynasty. Height 4.2cm, caliber 7.8cm, bottom diameter 3cm, collected by Museum of Zibo City, Shangdong

Straight mouth, a line raised line design under the lip rim, deep belly, small flat bottom, short roundish feet, thin paste. Qingbai glaze all over the ware and well-proportion, like a jade quality and beauty. The shape was new and cute.

(136) Qingbai glaze eight multi-prismatic vase, Song Dynasty- Height 18.5cm, caliber 6cm, bottom diameter 5cm, the Museum of Jiangxi Province

Straight mouth, high neck, eight multi-prismatic squareness from the neck to the belly, round feet inward. A barrel-shaped flow-mouth set on one side of shoulder, a compressed curl handle which connected the neck and shoulder set on the other side. The cover was eight multi-prismatic shape with the shelled com shape button. Small ties were set on the top of handle and the rim of cover. Cloud pattern decorated on the shoulder and belly. Qingbai glaze all over the ware, die color was moisten and transparent, the quality was refined and exquisite. It could be effected by the metal vessels, because of the high metallic effect at the turn place of planum to planum. It was hard to molding. Similar to the unearthed vase from Zhangmin tomb in Zhenjiang of Jiangsu Province in 1974, but later was a round vessel of cup 43cm, caliber 7.7cm, height of tray 2.7cm, collected by Museum of Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu province.

Cup got a straight mouth, deep belly, flat bottom, gold rim on the mouth about 0.6cm wide. the tray was round plate shape, high roundish feet, white paste, thin and transparent. Ice crackle pattern under the pale green glaze, the shape was neat, novel, special in the lamps of Song Dynasty. It excavated at Zhangmin tomb of Emperor Xining in Song Dynasty which was in Zhenjiang City of Jiangsu Province in July, 1974.

Zhang Min, called "Bozhen" birth in Pucheng of Jianzhou (now the Pucheng Town in Fujian Province). Died on 6th , November of the forth year in the Xining period(1071), , fthe day before he died, he still travelled FuyushMi moutain with his friends." He was buried in Runzhou of Changle county in Helin Moutain(now the north suburb of Zhenjiang ).

Zhang Min has no record in book of History of Song Dynasty, even no mentioned on his official position. But when he was 33years old, he followed with Fan Zhongyan worked at Muzhou-Fan also wrote a poem to describe the competition of tea, this was the earlist poem reflected the scene of that time. Maybe just because of he had this relationship with Fan, his official career was extremely swimmingly later, so it it may not seem very impressive that the expensive teaware showed in the his grave sites.

(138) Egg white printing double phoenix pattern bowl, Yuan Dynasty. Height 5.4cm, caliber 13.5cm, the Museum of Jiangxi Province

Open mouth, sidelong curl wall, deep belly, knife-edged bottom, small roundish feet as a rain hat. A circle double lines decorated inside of bowl, a pair of phoenix printed in the center of bowl with bees flying around, vividly and naturally. Refine glaze of ware with unglaze feet. The egg white glaze was thick, so it called as "Luanbai You Qi", also called as "Shufu Qi". It fired by Hutian kiln of Jingdezhen in Yuan Dynasty. the shape continued the modelling since Song Dynasty, just changed the feet shorter and smaller than ever before. Song was scored pattern it was printing pattern at this time.

(139) Egg white glaze lotus flower pattern cup-tray, Yuan Dynasty. Height 6.5cm, caliber 9.1cm, bottom diameter 5cm, collected by the Museum of Shanghai The cup and the tray were a pair, lotus petals flower pattern was clear, high roundish feet under the cup, it was hollow. Egg white glaze all over the ware. Difference is bigger between it and the cuptray which manufactured by Jingdezhen kilns in Song Dynasty. the paste was thicker than before, shape was simplicity. The cup-tray in Song Dynasty much thiner than this and fission mostly.

(140) Blue and white cup-tray, Yuan Dynasty. Total height 9cm, cup height 4.5cm, caliber 10.1cm, height of standing 5.1cm, collected by the Capital Museum, Cup was outwards mouth, curl wall, deep belly, small round feet. Wide rim of the tray plate, the standing seemd as a cup, a little inwards, high feet, outwards of the bottom.no glaze inside. Blue and white pattern encompassed the tray, most were whiten branches. Shape was clean and simple, Because it unearthed from the historic sites of Khanbaliq in Yuan Dynasty, so we defined it as vessel of Yuan Dynasty.

(141) Qingbai melon multi-prismatic vase, Yuan Dynasty. Height 21cm, caliber 5.6cm, collected by the Palace Museum.

Cup was outwards mouth, high neck, plump shoulder, the belly was melon multi-prismatic shape, flat bottom, no round feet, A tubular curl flow mouth on one side of shoulder, a compressed handle which connected neck and shoulder, a circle tie set on handle used for cover, this vessel should be lack of a cover Qingbai porcelain all over the ware, clean and moisten, semitransparent. the shape was same to the vase shape in the fresco of eastern wall in Liao tombs which sited at Xuanhua Area of Hebei Province, only different on size.

(142) Qingbai porcelain Duamu ewer, Yuan Dynasty Height 24.9cm, caliber bottom diameter 12.4cm, collected by the Capital Muscum

The ewer was cylindraceous, imall top and underbelly, short roundish feet was compressed without glaze. There were five convex belts decorated the up, middle, down, left and right, where the major grids points intersect were nipple pattern. A high wall on the handle side, the middle was high, low on each side, just lika a cloud, The cover was flush bonding shape, lotus flower pattern convex on the molding, natural and mellifluence. The quadrate flow-mouth, and compressed curl handle were put on the cloth of Qingbai glaze, refined and clean. The shape imitated the traditional shape of Mongolia, only changed the direction of flow-mouth. This kind of vessel used by Mongol and Tibetans for putting the tibet butter tea. The methods of making tibet butter tea were as follow: fired the tea cake into strong tea, pull some ghee, salt, milk and other seasoning, stirred until the tea and milk blending, it was necessity of Mongol and Tibetans.

(143) Blue and white porcelain pot with monk's cap shaped mouth, Yuan Dynasty, Height 19.7cm, caliber 16 cm, collected by the Capital Museum

A high wall on the upside of belly, similar to the monk's cap, short bold neck, round belly and feet. A flow-mouth connected with the neck on one side of the belly, similar to the duckbill, a compressed wide handle on the other side which linked with the high wall directly. The cover was flush bonding shape, hiding in the straight high wall with cloud decorative pattern. It was particular extremely, and maybe exclusive used for religionary tea ware. So many imitated shape in Jingdezhen of Song and Ming Dynasties.

(144) Fencai enamel Duomu ewer, Qianlong Period, Qing Dynasty. Height 51cm, wideth 23cm, collected by Taipei's

National Palace Museum

The monk's hat shape of ewer mouth, lotus petal pattern of pedestal and coral button, , cover looked like a half ball, the dragon flow-mouth on one side of the belly, a dragon jutting its tail out from the other side of belly and became a handle. The body divided into three pieces and the metal pieces of rim decorated with floral scroll patterns all over the vessel, and embeded the coral, lapis lazuli, kallaites on the center of flowers. On the reserved panel, painted the flower, people, views, etc. Outwards roundish feet, rectangle metal piecessticked on the roundish feet, with the black intaglio as "Da Qing Qian Long Nian Zhi"(made in Qianlong Period, Qing Dynasty) The base K gold. This one was the vessel used in royal family of Qing Palace.

Jian Kilns

Jian kilns were the famous kiln sites in die south of China, were made at kilns located in north area of Shuijizhen town which in Jianyang City of Fujian Province.

The earliest historical data mentioned about "Jian kilns" was "Xin Zeng Ge Gu Yao Lun" (new addition), it recorded that Jian kilns wares were produced in Fujian, bowls were open mouth, blackwares were moisten, with the yellow rabbits speckles, big globule is true and they are all thick, rare to thin."

According to the archaeological data shows, Jian kilns started to fire porcelain at the late-Tang to Five Dynasties, mainly comprised green glaze tea wares, also some brown vessels. The shape included pots, double-ear jars, bowls, plates, cups, vases, basins, grindings, etc.

At the late Five Dynasties to early time of Northern Song Dynasty, Jian kilns improved their techniques and used a concave infundibular sagger to fire heads black glaze bowls. The black glaze bowls were thin paste , thin glaze, low belly, convex inside of bottom, distinguished with the prevalent Jian cups afterwards, it could be considered as the first signs of create of Jian cup.

They reached the peak of their popularity during the Northern and Southern Song dynasty. Kilns sites got a big scale, the shape of products for commodities to bowl which was a large number of high quality and standard. It was on the wane in Yuan Dynasty.

Jian ware got a high position on the major Dian Cha Method which was the tea-drinking fashion in the Song Dynasty. In the "Da Song Xuan He Yi Shi", it proved that "the bowl produced by Jianxi kiln, pull the spring water into it make Cai Jing drink it." The book of Cha Lu(Tea Record) which written by Cai Xiang talked about Jian wares, "tea is white, bowl is black. The black bowl produced by Jian'an. Being of rather thick fabric they retain the heat, so that when once warmed through they cool very slowly, and they are additionally valued on this account. The thin or the purple wares were not so overmatch as it." Sixty year later, The Emperor Huizong wrote in his Da Guan Cha Lu (Treatise on Tea), "the best color of bowl is black, white foam on it and it will be easy for you to pick the foam out, the bottom should be wide and deep so the tea can standing. But how many we should get the tea for the foam? It depends on the size of bowl. Little tea if the bowl was tall, Tea is of light colour and looks best in black cups. None of the cups produced at other places can rival these. Blue and white cups are not used by those who give tea-tasting parties."

It was reasonable that Jian ware should be liked by everyone from royal family to the scholar and lofty-minded literaties. But I think another cute character of Jian kilns was the changed of the mouth, an inwards concave groove corresponding to the convex circle. Depend on the difference of lip rim and the belly, it could be divided into different kinds of tea bowl." There still had differences between convergent mouth, outwards mouth, open mouth.

(145) The mottling of partridge markings and speckle bowl, Northern Song Dynasty. Height 7.7cm, wideth 19.4cm, bottom diameter 4.9cm, collected by Jingjiatang Wenku (Library) in Japan

Outwards mouth, outlong staight wall, deep belly, low round feet, the root of feet was bevel edge. Blue black glaze both inside and outside with ungalze bottom, pendulous black globule with base. Thick glazed surface with innumerable silver dots distributing naturally and the silvery splattering of oil spots, like the stars shining in the dark sky, as well as the cyan-radiance, it was amazing and acclaim as the peak of perfection. This was the typical bowl of Jian kilns. In the early Northern Song Dynasty, "Qing Yi Lu"written by Tao Gu recorded," tea taster always cherish the partridge speckle bowl which made in middle of Fujian."

(146) Partridge speckle Yohen bowl, Sorthern Song Dynasty. Height 6.8cm, 12cm, bottom diameter 3.8cm, collected by Jingjiatang Wenku (Library) Japan

Convergent mouth under the lip rim, sidelong curl wall, short roundish feet Cyan-black glaze both inside and outside with unglaze bottom, reclinate glaze with steel green dots distributing naturally, and the glass color dots anomalously. It was colorful and wonderful, so we named it as "Yohen"(changing color). This one was the best existing one in what we had know. This bowl was a collection of Dao Ye Mei Nong who was an ancient official of Japan, so it also called "Dao Ye Tian Mu" ("yoben Tenmoku"). It is the national treasure in Japan.

(147) Hare's fur bowl, Sorthern Song Dynasty. Height7.2cm, caliber 12.6cm, bottom diameter 4cm, private collection of Japan.

Convengent mouth, sidelong curl wall, small roundish feet. Glaze both inside and outside. When Jian wares were set tilted for firing, drips run down the side, creating evidence of liquid glaze pooling. Using your hand to take the round feet around horizontal downward into glost base mud, put it close to the place that bowl bottom line of the slab abdomen glazing line, slowly turning body for absorbing the glost paste mud evenly, glaze and paste were mutually agglutinate, take it out from the mud, put it into lain after it is dry. This glaze usually stopped short of the outer base in a thick welt; it also tended to pool thickly on the inside of the vessel At high temperatures the molten glaze separate lo produce a pattern called hare's fur. This was a no other character of Jian kilns. Because of the thin glaze on lip rim, gold button was put on.

(148) hare's fur bowl, Sorthern Song Dynasty. Height9.3cm, caliber 12.2cm, bottom diameter 4.5cm, private collation of Japan.

Open mouth outwards, sidelong curl wall, deep belly, round flat feet. Dark brown red base put on at first, then the thick black glaze until bottom, the base of feet was dark brown, the trimming of the glaze was casual and antual with clear knife vestige. Full of hare's fur inside of the ware and outside under the lip rim. Silver botton inlaid on the lip rim.

(149) Shoushan Fuhai gold color character pattern bowl, Southern Song Dynasty. Height 6.3cm, caliber 12.7cm, bottom diameter 4cm, private collection of Japan.

Convergent mouth, sidelong curl wall, small roundish feet- The shape was flat and wide with the rude technic, trimming of the base was casual and low bottom. Black glaze all over the ware, it was thin and uneven, ending at the waist line, so no any feeling of "glaze circle" at all. There were five petals pattern in the center of bowl and printed with four characters such as "Shou, Shan, Fu, Hai", many lines emanative to the lip rim took all the count, it was natural so it should be a ware to mass production.

Jizhou Kilns

Jizhou kilns were famous synthesis kiln sites in south of China, their major production were pottery and porcelain ceramics for civil using. The sites were sitting at Yonghe County in Ji^an Town of Jiangxi Province. It belonged to Jizhou in old time, so named "Jizhou kilns", but it was sitting at Yonghe County^ since also called "Yonghe kilns".

Jizhou kilns started at late-Tang Dynasty, went to peak when Song Dynasty, ended at Ming Dynasty.

We saw the kinds of unearthed porcelain, there were two categories to be fired in late-Tang Dynasty to Five Dynasties such as green porcelain and milky white porcelain. Because of the influence of Jingdezhen in Northern Song Dynasty, they improved the techniques on firing the milky white porcelain and became the major production of that time, as well as the firing technology improved. But there still had a distance compare to the blue and white porcelain of Jingdezhen.

There was another milky white porcelain which influenced by Ding kilns then manufactured a kind of Ding kiln shape of floral white porcelain, This got improvements compared to the former milky white porcelain, but a little crude and thick than white porcelain of Ding kilns, bowl was primary type.

The Song royal family went to south while the Southern Song Dynasty, the economic center also moved to south, the peace society in southern area made so many potteries who were lived in north came to Yonghe county, then this area got speed up development and went into peak of its own period. Except the traditional products in Yonghe at that time, there were a great number of imitations of Ding kilns, Cizhou kilns, Yaozhou kilns. The categories of Jizhou kilns included vessels for life goods, staues, tops, pfficial accomodations and so on. The pattern was to surpass the ever before, there were printing, carving, scratching, scoring, filling, color painting, sculpturing, etc. The color of glaze included white, black, green, under color painting glaze and so on, Varieties of the categories were distinguishing feature or quality. In these kinds of sort, the most impressive were the black glaze accidental colouring bowls and paper-cut applique pattern bowls.

(150) Black glaze leaf pattern bowls, Southern Song Dynasty. Height 53cm, caliber 14.9cm, bottom diameter 3.3cm, collected by the East Ocean Ceramics Gallery in Tokyo's Higashi-osaka,

Open mouth, sidelong wall, low belly, small short roundish feet. A treated mulberry tree leave decorated the inside wall. Black glaze both inside and outside, unglazed bottom uncovered the roundish feet.

This was a peculiar decorate technique in Jizhou kilns. The method was: glazing a black glaze on the base, put another high temperature glaze on the mulberry tree leave after special processing, sticked it on the ware, baked in high-temperature electrical kiln, the pattern color for leave was changeable especially because of the change of glaze and kiln under high temperature. This one was the most characteristic work in Jizhou kilns wares of Southern Song Dynasty, When pull the tea soup into bowl, the leave was floating in the bowl, breezing to the heart, smell the tea perfume, hallucinatory and shadowy, a myriad of thoughts crowded into heart.

(151) Cutting decals pattern bowl, Southern Song Dynasty. Height 7cm, caliber 12.7cm, bottom diameter 3.7cm, private collection in Japan.

Open mouth, a little outwards curl lip, convergent sidelong and deep belly, small roundish feet. Dark brown glazing outside, the white paste of unglazed feet was crude. Three butterflies and twin legendary phoenix birds pattern painted inside of the wall, tortoise shell markings pattern painted out of the ware.

The flower pattern inside of the bowl was sticked the paper-cut on the black glaze, then, painted a thin pale glaze on the uncovered area, pulled out the paper-cut after all of this, the black pattern would emerge, fired it in the kilns at last.

The manufacture of tortoise shell markings pattern painted on the outside of wall as follow, glazing on the paste before sent into kilns, glaze on the paste for the second time in different swell factor, this was a kind of the corlor glaze of furnace transmutation, also belong to the special production of Jizhou kilns in Southern Song Dynasty.

Fanchang Kilns

It is sitting at mound of west suburb of Fanchang town in Anhui Province, the south suburb of Kejiachong was the production center of Fanchang kilns, the big scale was centralized sites.

No historical datas about Fanchang kilns, only in the Custom, County Annals of Fanchang said, "still remember the early time of Qingli Period, (1041-1048, the name of Emperor RenZong of Northern Song Dynasty), thrift folk customs, earth step and porcelain vessels."

In the middle of 1950s, Kejiachong kiln sites had been discovered. After the experts did research on this place, they thought it should be relative to Xuanzhou kilns.

About Xuanzhou kilns, many historical datas mentioned The Vase Book written by Zhang Qiande in Ming Dynasty called "Xuancheng kilns", considered it as wonderful as Chai, Ru, Guan, Ge, Ding these five famous kilns of Song Dynasty, Lan Pu wrote Jingdezhen Pottery Record, "Xuande kiln fired ceramics in Yuan and Ming Dynasties, the white clay is good for porcelain in the round of Xuanzhou, 11 After many investigations and excavated on Fangchang kilns, it be thought started to fire in late-Tang and Five Dynasties, reached peak in Northern Song Dtynasty, declined in Southern Song Dtynasty, supersession in Yuan Dynasty. The major production was blue and white porcelain. Was the Fanchang kiln the same kiln with Xuanzhou kiln? Now still no answers. The Fanchang major production were veseels for daily life such as bowls, cups, plates, pots, basins, vase, cup-trays, cup standings, furnaces, jars, etc, among these the bowl, plates, cups were the mass-produced vessels. Shape mostly were sidelong curl or sidelong straight wall. big flat bottom. Bowls and plates were curl lip and thick lip. Roundish feet were short, unglaze, kept the vestige of throwing paste on the bottom. The base was hard and refined. The color always was yellow in white. The color of glaze was blue in white, some of the sky blue, lake blue, greenish-blue and so elegent colors. The surface of glaze were thin and well-proportioned, moisten and shining. It could be the exquisite ware in blue and white porcelain of Song Dynasty.

(152) Qing bai porcelain butterfly pattern vase, Northern Song Dynasty, Height 18.8cm, caliber 7cm, bottom diameter 6.9cm, collected by Museum of Anhui Province.

Alms bowl mouth, convergent neck, smooth shoulder, long round melon multi-prismatic belly, roundish feet were short, A tubular short curl flow mouth on one side of shoulder, a compressed wide handle on the other side, symmetric circle ties set in the middle of the cover and handle. A butterfly pattern sticked under the flow-mouth, an obvious scratching die melon multi-prismatic belly, thr crude handcraft got strong performance comparative with the exquisite upside deoration. Blue and white glaze all over the round, it was transparent and moisten, only lots of dust rust on it because the long time buried in earth. The shape was vivid and as same as the blue white bowknot pattern vase which unearthed from the tomb in Jingdezhen City in 1972, of which Shushi's tomb made the second year of Zhiping Period in Northern Song Dynasty(1065). Looked like they communicated with each other who not very far from. Compared them, Fanchang kilns were much more big-hearted, no refined, crude, thick, Ain, they were all conscious on it.

(153) Qing bai porcelain lotus shape cup, Northern Song Dynasty. Height 10.7cm, caliber 11cm, bottom diameter 3.5cm, collected by Museum of Anhui Province.

Open mouth, a convex raised line design under the lip rim, straight wall, flat feet. Three layers and six petals pattern scored on the outside of wall, the central petals were convex and low both side, shape was special. Blue and white glaze all over the ware, not high fired temperature, lots of dust rust on it because of the long time buried in the moisten earth. Scalding at some areas, surface had tiny crackles.

(154) Qing bai porcelain cup-tray, Northern Song Dynasty. Total Height 8.4cm, caliber of cup 10.4cm, bottom diameter 3.6cm, caliber of tray 12.6cm, collected by Museum of Anhui Province.

Open mouth of cup, six petals pattern of shape, curl wall, round feet. The tray was similar to a round plate, straight mouth, was five petals shape, two steps for wall, with a convex circle as center as tray standing. Qing bai porcelain all over the ware with tiny chip pattern, rich and lustrous.

This shape was same to the cup-tray which produced in the same time of Jingdezhen, Fanchang kiln cup-tray seemed more relax and release than later.

If we compared to some vessels' shape of these two kilns, Fanchang kilns was better than Jingdezhen kilns.