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Tea-drinking Mode and Vessels in Late-Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties

Drinking tea was the major event in common life of ordinary people at Late-Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties. The teahouse where people often went to take the rest and actions were sitting on the streets and roads also formed a certain scale. In the past, wine was the leading role in some social occasions, but until that time, tea was as important as wine. All walks of life met their friends with tea became much wider, formed a teahouse in a certain place gradually. The unexpected appearance of tea formed sado, bought a profound influence on the after world of sado which mixed tea-drinking method, tea-tasting method and cultivated drinking temperament. People accorded great importance to Lu Yu, respected him as "Cha Sheng" (tea saint). Regarding to the Tang Guo Shi Bu, the pottery used to be the porcelain in Gongxian town, "potters in Gongxian used to make porcelain vessels, so called them as Lu Hongjian", The activity of the people who bought ten teawares could get a sculpture of Lu Yu, stimulated the flourish of economics. There was a excavated set of teaware toy of Five Dynasties which collected in Chinese History Museum, represent the situation of teawares of that time. It concluded Lu Yu statue, draft furnace, tea Fu, vase, Cha Jiu, lees funnel. From the perspective of the kinds of teawares, furnace and tea Fu were used for fired tea, vases were used for Dian Cha, Cha Jiu were used for both.

(71-1) White glaze porcelain black color sculpture of Lu Yu statue, Five Dynasties. Height 10cm, collected by National Museum of China.

The procelain stastue of Lu Yu weared ancient clothes, skirts and tall hat, holding a book, the seated, cross-legged lotus position, manner civility, not like the ordinary person, because this one excavated with the draft furnace, tea Fu, vase, Cha Jiu, lees funnel, so we thought the book should be the Classic of Tea.

(71-2) White glaze porcelain of draft furnace, tea Fu, , Five Dynasties. Total height 15.6cm, collected by National Museum of China, The draft furnace was porcelain, round bottom and straight trunk belly, tri-feet, three convex holding bed on the top rim, a double ring wind scoop opened on one side of the belly, four rectangles pore opened on the other side. No fire grate set in the belly. Cha Fu was porcelain, round belly, flat bottom, convergent mouth with twin ears. These two vessels were a pair, white thick glazed, a little cyan where the galze were thick, no glaze at the underbelly and bottom.

(71-3) White glaze porcelain vase, Five Dynasties. Height 9.8cm, caliber4.3cm, collected by National Museum of China.

Little wide mouth, straight neck, round belly, short flow-mouth, curl handle, no big different shape with applied vase except a little smaller. White glaze totally, a little cyan where the glaze were thick, no glaze at the underbelly and bottom.

(71-4) White glaze porcelain Cha Jiu, Five Dynasties. Height 3.1cm, caliberl2.2cm, collected by National Museum of China.Low plattery shape, slight flat bottom. Four areas inside of the wall, oppressive the diagonal lines, picked the Kylin grains between the lines. The paste was much more compact with white glaze outside. No such different shape with the the applied vessels, as same as Cha Jin be manufactured by the other kilns. May also time be a practical device.

(71-5) White glaze porcelain lees funnel, Five Dynasties. Height9.5cm, caliber 11.3cm, collected by National Museum of China.

Lees funnel also called "Tuo yu" (container cup), used for tea-leaf, it was very common in series of teaware. Big mouth as a bowl, belly was pulled back, it was a fashion style as same as in Five Dynasties, a little less than applied vessels.

These vessels above-mentioned unfeigned reflected the phenomenon of fired tea and Dian Cha existed at the same time, these accordanced with the record of the Tang Guo Shi Bu. Judging from the shape, size, quality, workmanship, of unearthed teaware, these should be toys. Comparing the shape of vases, lees funnels, Cha Jiu to the other kilns wares in the same time, it could be proved that wares belonged to the fashion style of Xing Kilns at end of Tang and Five Dynasties. From the whole set wares, we surmise they should be the contractible vessels according to the applied vessels, even lack of the comparable data.

Yugh Kilns

Five Dynasties are the officially recognized dynasties of the north, while the south had ten kingdoms. The north was continually ravaged by warfare during this time as they were attacked time and again by the Khitans and the Turks, Conversely, the southern areas enjoyed a time of peace, economic prosperity, and cultural growth, the Yueh Kiln was still on its peak at that time, the base, the glaze, the workmanship were keeping their intrinsic characters, just a little change on shape. The Tang period firmly established the following porcelain dominant production trend: Green wares in the South and White wares in the North of China, , it didn’t change, , and the Yueh kilns ware still occupied the overwhelming superiority for their quality of products.

(72) Celadon cup standing, Five Dynasties. Height6.5cm, bottom diameter 6.8cm, collected by Lin'an Committee for the Protection of Antiquities and Monuments

Wide-mouth cup, curl lip, connected with high standing rotary type of the cup standing, opened roundish feet. Green glaze totally, the surface of glaze shining that has a jade like quality, the paste was light and thin, the shape of vessels are elegant and manufactured measured and deliberate.

(73) Celadon lees funnel, Five Dynasties. Height9.8cm, caliber 16.8cm, , bottom diameter 6.6cm, collected by Lin'an Committee for the Protection of Antiquities and Monuments

Wide-mouth as big as bowl shape, curl lip-rim, oblate round belly, little open round feet. The paste was grey and morbidezza. Bluish yellow glaze all over the funnel and the surface was lenitive.

(74) Celadon flower-mouth cup, Five Dynasties. Height4.8cm, caliber8cm, bottom diameter5cm, , collected by Lin'an Committee for the Protection of Antiquities and Monuments

Wide-mouth, curl wall, knife-edged roundish lip, the shape was five petals pattern of the lip-rim, high roundish feet standing rotary type, thin and light paste, exquisite workmanship, bluish yellow glaze all over the ware and the surface was moisten.

(75) Celadon bowl, Five Dynasties, Height4.6cm. caliberl2.4cm, bottom diameter 5.5cm, collected by Lin'an Committee for the Protection of Antiquities and Monuments

Wide-mouth, straight abdominal wall, low round feet, Green glaze all over the ware and the color was greenth and moisten, including the glazed bottom which got a spur-mark. The exquisite paste was grey.

These above-mentioned four vessels were all excavated at Queen Madam Ma'tomb in Xianglicun Village, Linglongzhen town of Lin'an city. The shape of wares civility, generous, identifying. No detail was overlooked, even though the mouth, lip, belly, bottom and part of comer. The shape of vessels are elegant with clear influence of gold or silver wares of the period. No matter of the thickness of the paste or the change process of shape were in good taste. It could reflect the pursue and good taste to the exquisite wares of the noble estate in Five Dynasties in their daily life, Mi Se porcelain went to a high level on material processing, forming techniques, glazing, calcination, etc.

(76-1) Celadon Fu, Five Dynasties. Height 9.4cm, caliber 17.5cm, bottom diameter 5.3cm, collected by Zhejiang Museum.

Wide rim and open mouth, a pair of semiorbicular ears on the rim, deep belly, round bottom, no glaze outside of ware and grey paste. This kind of shape was metal shape mostly, rare in porcelain ware. Fu was used for serve soup in when boiling the tea. Lu Yu said in his The Classic of Tea, Fu, a kind of metal made vessel ... porcelain be used in Hongzhou, stone be used in Laizhou, Porcelain and stone are elegant materials, not firm and substantial for lasting, used in silver is pure definitely. No discovery on this kind of wares in Famen Temple, but they found lots of wares like these in Hejiacun village of Xi'an and Dingmao Bridge in Dantu city of Jiangsu Province.

(76-2) Bale handle silver pot, total height17.1cm, caliberl9cm, , excavated in Hejiacun village of Xi’an

(76-3) Twin ears silver pot, total height 13cm, calibcr28cm, excavated in Dingmao Bridge in Dantu city of Jiangsu

Two pieces of similar vessels which excavated in Hejiacun village were called "silver pot" One was bale handle silver pot, wide rim, open mouth straight belly to the round underbelly, there were symmetrical ring-shaped button connected with the bale handle. It was shinning and clean totally, no pattern decorations and metaform. The twin ears silver pot, was wide mouth, flat bottom, the belly cambered outwards for a round, twin symmetrical ears paralleled with the pot jointing on the lip-rim. Half ring-shaped knob were riveted on the symmetrical ears. It was also shinning and clean totally, no pattern decorations and metaform. The latter was so similar to the Celadon Fu, just a little difference on the mode of processing of bale handles and sizes because of the different materials. Owning to the gold or silver pot in history records were always used for decocting medicinal herbs, they had been surmised as boil medicine instruments. But after we compared the unearthed silver pot to the Celadon Fu, even got in touch with The Classic of Tea, we can definitely qualified the Celadon Fu were used as served soup vessel boiling tea. This proved that fired tea also be in fashion in the Five Dynasties, even more paid particular attention to fired tea wares.

(77) Celadon vase, five Dynasties. Heig12.1cm, caliber9.8cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Open-top mouth, high neck, smooth shoulder, , oval melon prismatic pattern belly, snubby circular arc form flow-mouth on one side of shoulder, compressed annular handle on the other side. two ring-shaped tie on the corresponding-each-side, A ring convex raised line design at the joint of neck and body. Different style with Tang Dynasty for its subdued shape, overall shape was curve in major, we can felt the vessels' shapes were in the processing of transition from Tang dynasty to Song Dynasty.

(78) Carved lotus pattern cup standing, Five Dynasties. Total height 13.5cm, Cup:Highth 9cm, caliber 13.5cm, bracket standing: highth 6.1cm, caliber 14.8cm, bottom diameter 9.4cm, collected by Museum of Suzhou City.

Cup was a ware with staight mouth, deep belly, straight roundish feet. The upside of the bracket was analogous to plate, high round standing. Outside of wall, roundish feet, and surface of bracket were scored lotus pattern all over, looked like a blooming lotus, Green glaze all over of ware with a little yellow floating, the surface of glaze was clean and moisten, smoothly such a jade like quality, seemed to be special production of teawares for Buddism.

(79) Celadon cup standing, Five Dynasties. Height 9cm, caliber 13.5cm, bottom diameter of bracket standing is 9.4cm, collected by Shangyu city Committee for the Protection of Antiquities and Monuments.

Specialized wares for holding the tea bowls and cups. It was constituted by the bracket, holding plate and roundish feet. The pattern in the bracket similar to the lotus seeds shower, and the petal decorations around. The shape of holding plate was six pieces of petals, the rim was wide and scored wave pattern, A little higher roundish feet was open outwards and six pieces of petal, corresponding to the holding bracket, Overall modelling was multiplying in simple, the contrast of bluish yellow glaze and scored lines made the cup standing looked so delicacy.

(80) Celadon scored flower pattern cup standing, Five Dynasties. Cup: Height 8.1cm, caliber 16.5cm, height of bracket standing is 9.4cm, collected by Capital Museum.

Open-mouth of cup, five tantamountpetzls of sunflower, low belly, flat bottom Six petals pattern on the rim of tea tray, high roundish feet. There were bees and flowers pattern on the rim and belly of the plate, floral scrolls outside. Total look was elegant and beauty, glaze was clean and the workmanship was extreme accomplished.

Yuezhou Kilns

The Yuezhou kiln (called Yue for short) fired porcelain with an elegant glaze of a green lake color, until the latter part of the Five Dynasties. The major wares were plates and bowls, some of them were pots and vases. The quality of grey thin paste was far inferior rather than the Yueh Kilns. Green was the major color of glaze, some were bluish yellow with a strong glass texture and tiny finely broken borneol pattern, When they developd and fired the ultimate celadon porcelain known, because of its yellow-green color, as Olive Green Porcclain, The glaze of some wares were easy to peel off because the fired glaze didn't connect the paste closely. They had used seggar to fire the porcelain, changed the gasket fired method into fired with the stand, to ensure the whole of wares, merely the bottom of lots of plates and bowls remained the fired vestiged.

(81) Green glaze bowl, Five Dynasties. Height 15.6cm, caliber7.5cm, , bottom diameter 8.6cm, , collected by Palace Museum of China.

Wide-mouth, round lip, low belly, broad bottom, convergent below the mouth, roundish feet was open outwards, there remained the five roundish fired vestiges on the bottom. Green and bluish yellow glaze got a strong glass texture all over the ware, with the tiny finely broken borneol pattern.

Huangbao Kilns

Huangbao kilns developed continued and brought forth new ideas based on the foundation of Tang Dynasty in the Five Dynasties, There was tremendous progress on the very specific operations compared to Tang Dynasty, Teh finish machining of mud was the fundamental guarantee for fired fine wares. Molding was still throwing and forming on the round device, small wares recured to tooling fabrication, even some small wares used the kneading model method to produce. About the glaze, painted a layer of engobe on the moulded paste to prevent the iron charge overflow paste was firing. After that, gave the glaze to ware cm the surface of engobe would get better effection ang quality than ever before. They had used the seggar to fire the porcelain in common, fired with kinds of the stand and some other kiln furnitures.

Check the unearthed remnant and vessels, the green glaze workmanship was quite developed in Five Dynasties, it was the leading position in the north, but still inferior to the Yueh Kilns.

Huangbao Kilns in Five Dynasties, had lots of decorations such as carved, painted, imprinted, added embossed sculptures, and applique patterns and so on, made the manifestations were rich. Even though the same ware could show the beauty of harmony in different decorate method on different positions. The flower, people, animals and geometric designs no matter concrete or abstract. The shapes of celadon concluded tableware, teaware, wineware, life goods, nothing was wanting, of which plates, cup standings, vases, cups were a large amount products.

(82) Green glaze sunflower mouth cup, Five Dynasties. Height 4.3cm, caliber 13.2cm, bottom diameter 4.6cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Sunflower shape mouth, round lip, deep belly, concave seamed edge on the wall, round feet. Full of green glaze with a little white. The total shape of bowl massiness, different from the Yueh kilns ware in the same time.

(83) Green glaze lotus petal lees funnel with wide mouth, Five Dynasties. Height 13.8cm, caliber 20cm, bottom diameter 8.9cm, collected by Capital Museum.

Big wide mouth, , round thick and a little convergent lip, tight waist, round feet. The ware was made by throwing off the bottom of bowl and connecting with the pot-lip. Three layers scored the lotus petals on the belly, way of cutting was bold with plain clumsy style. Green glaze all over the ware, and the surface of glaze shining that has tiny finely broken borneol pattern, the gray base was light and thin.

There were six vestiges of fired with kinds of the stand.

This type of ware was rare in Huangbao Kilns, it should be imitated Yueh kilns which in the same period. But it was a little more plain clumsy rather than the Yueh kilns ware.

Ou kilns

Wenzhou had a rapid development of ceramics in Five Dynasties, because of its blooming economics, peaceful society, The quantity and scope of kilns not merely the places such as Wenzhou and Yongjia. There still had archaic kilns in Rui'an, Taishun, Lishui, Longquan and so on according to the found kiln sites. Bowls, plates, vases, jars, basins, lamps, and some other life goods were the major product, especially on bowls and plates. The offwhite paste was morbidezza and well-proportioned, while we see the unearthed remnant and vessels.

the glaze still moisten and nattierblue mostly, its workmanship was civility and preciseness. The more thin of the paste, the more exquisite of small vessels. As for decorative patterns, there were print, decorative, embossed decoration, newly added embossed sculptiures and applique patterns, especially they good at the embossed decoration, lotus petals, lotus, curl grass, sunflowers, clouds and peony.

(84) Celadon melon prismatic vase, Five Dynasties. Height 21.6cm, caliber 10.2cm, belly diameter 7.3cm, bottom diameter 8.9cm, collected by Rui'an Protection of Antiquities and Monuments House

Pipe socket, high neck and convergent in the middle area, oval belly, short roundish feet. A long thin round flow-mouth on the shoulder which was upside of belly, a compressed curl handle was put on the other side which was connected the neck and belly. One convex square beam on the connection. Four concave pattern lines impressed by instruments on the belly, to made sure the shape was melon prismatic. Full of lightcyan glaze, the glaze surface was clean, moisten and shining, a jade like quality.

This ware’s shape was so different with the vase in Tang Dynasty, higher neck, center of gravity moved down for convenient Dian Cha method of tea-drinking. Functional factors showed out from the subtle changes, then changed the intrinsic molding of vases gradually.

Ding kilns

There were white porcelains being made as early as the Tang Dynasty; A sery of gold and silver inlaid the white porcelains changed people’s acknowledge on the early Ding Kilns ware, which had been found at the tomb of the mother of Qian Mu who was a king lived in Lin'an, Zhejiang Province. Late-Tang Dynasty, Xing Klins decayed because of the materials or some other reasons. Ever got a big effections of Xing Kilns, the technics of Ding Kilns reached a high level no matter on the clay processing or the fired sintering temperature. Ding kilns were famous for its off-white glazes and exquisite engravings, etchings, and imprinted patterns on porcelain although the glaze surface and color were not as good as expected. Porcelain kilns from other areas all strove to imitate Ding porcelain, which became the famous white porcelain kilns in Northern China.

By Five Dynasties, the porcelain business here continued improving, the exquisite white porcelain was fired out, then they began to manufactured great mounts of white porcelain products with which great quality. Meanwhile they still fired the manufacture of which was mainly for the imperial court charactered as "GUAN"XIN GUAN" (officials).

(85) White porcelain bowl, ]Five Dynasties. Height 4cm, caliber15.3cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Lip-rim, convergence under the lip-rim, low belly, roundish feet. White glaze all over the ware with shining and moisten color. No glaze at the underbelly and bottom, and the white paste was clean and refined. The most familiar shape of Ding Kilns in this time was the lip-rim bowl got a clear characteristic of the time no matter wide or narrow.

Gongxian Kilns

Fired white porcelain in Henan area, the most wonderful was Gongxian kilns. There was a record of the white porcelain handed on to Chang'an of the royal court in books of Tang Guo Shi Bu, the General geography of Hsin T'ang Shu. The unearthed white porcelain of Gongxian Kilns fitted close to the white porcelain for paying intribute, which digged out from the Xishi ancient ruins in Chang'an city of Tang and Darning Palace of Tang ancient ruins.

The white porcelain which produced in Gongxian kilns concluded bowls, plates, vases, jars, pillows and so on. The major products were bowls and plates, especially bowls. There were 11 categories of white porcelain bowls been gathered according to the record of Investigation on Gongxia's Ancient Ruin Kilns in Henan Province. The height was from2.9cm to 6.6cm, knife-edged roundish lip, curl roundish lip, four petals shape were just the hackneyed categories of open-mouth. So many changes on belly, low curl wall, straight wall, xurl bally, etc. And with the roundish feet or jade wall shape round feet, etc.

The white porcelain bowls were suitable for using as teawares in Gongxian kilns in Five Dynasties- After throwing form step, turned the lip around and connected, then formed a convex rim of lip, they called it as "lip-rim", it was the lip-rim course of action. There were differences between wide and straight, we could find in some other kilns of the same period. So the products made by different kilns at same period alway got the same charactcristic of the time on shape and appearance.

(86) White porcelain bowls with sunflower pattern mouth, Five Dynasties. Height 4.3cm, caliber 13.8cm, bottom diameter 5.3cm, collected by Wenzhou Museum.

Four petals of sunflower pattern mouth, a little outwards open-mouth, a little curl belly of oblique wall, low wide roundish feet, three raised lines design outside of the belly. White glaze all over the ware with shining and moisten color No glaze at the underbelly and bottom, and the thin white paste was clean and refined. Whole shape was legerity, clean and simple.

Jingdezhen Kilns

Jingdezhen City in the Northeast of Jiangxi Province, its porcelain known in all the world. It has some 2000 years of porcelain production history, and has been considered the porcelain capital of the world for a long time. As the record of The County Annuls of Fuliang, "Xinping started to porduce pottery at Han Dynasty." More specifical record in Northern Notes which written at Qing Dynasty, " Jingdezhen sited at northe of Chang River in Xinping, started to produce porduce simple and inornate pottery at Han Dynasty, as the ancient bowls."

Since the foundation of the People's Republic, the antiquarians had investigated on the old kiln sites of Jingdezhen for many times, and they couldn't find any kiln sites which started in Han Dynasty due to the records, but they found some kiln sites of Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties.

In May, 1982, they found a kiln site at construction work of Luoma Bridge neat to the Taibaiyuan Village in Jingdezhen, in which accumulation horizon could reach 700cm. Watching bowls unearthed from the understratum of accumulation horizon, their shape were wide mouth, a little curl belly of oblique wall, concave inside of the bottom, jade like bottom. The vestige of five support pins were clearly on the rim of bottom. Grayish thick base and a little bluish yellow in the nattierblue glaze all over the ware with tiny ice crackles, were the typical vessels of Tang Dynasty.

During Autumn in 1990, they had an important discorvery, a celadon porcelain grinder. It was a ship shape, the trough of grinder was a crescent shape, height 6. 8cm, ruined length 12cm (total lenth25cm). Green glaze looked like the color of crab shell, tiny crackles on it, no glaze feet and the base was grey. There was an inscription as "Da He Wu Nian" on the left. This was a precious data to prove that Jingdezhen's porcelain production initiated at Late-Tang Dynasty. Due to this, we could doubltless deduce that Shihuwen kilas started at Tang Dynasty.

The notable ones are Shengmeiting kiln and shihuwan kiln, Shengmeiting kiln was also called Yangmeiting kiln. Kiln site sitted at Jingcheng County meat the city center. Total area of this kiln was 2000m2, the ware and pieces of porcelain were all over the ground. The accumulation horizon was the Five Dynasties, unearthed such as support pins, sholes, etc. The ware concluded celadon, white porcelain bowls, basins, plates, jars, pots, etc. The vestige of support pins were on the inside of bottom and the feet. Cetedon bowls were wide open mouth, curl wall, jade like bottom and no glazed feet. Plates were lip-rim mouth or sunlower pattern rim with which big roundish feet. A long prolate handle on each vase. The white paste was clean and hard, shape was beauty and neat. The celadon, white porcelain wares were fired by support pins, they were exquisite and belong kiln sites of five Dynasties.

(87) Green glaze sunflower pattern bowl, Five Dynasties. Height 5.9cm, caliber 16.8cm, bottom diameter 9cm, collected by Gao'an City Museum.

Sunflower pattern mouth, sidelong curl wall, convex ribbed vertically below the mouth, a little outwards roundish feet, nine vestiges of support pins on the bottom and feet Turquoise glaze all over the ware, the surface was moisten, different from the Yueh kilns. It could be considered as the typical celadon porcelain of Jingdezhen Kilns.

(88) Greenish white porcelain lotus shape bowl. Five Dynasties. Height 6.2cm, caliber 14.6cm, bottom diameter 7.5cm, collected by Lianyungang City Museum.

This was unearthed from the tomb in Five Dyansties of Wu kiln which sitted at Haizhou in Jiangsu Province.

A little outwards open-mouth, deep belly with lotus petals pattern, the bottom was low roundish feet, turquoise glaze shinning and elegant, unique and new, especially in different texture and its unique style. Due to its characters corresponding to the specimen unearthed from Hutian old kiln in Jingdezhen, it was firmly believed belong to the product of Hutian Kilns of Jingdezhen.