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Teaware Made by Other Kilns in Tang Dynasty

After all of we mentioned as The Classic of Tea pointed out, there still some other kilns manufactured teaware.

Huangbao Kiln

Its location site at Huangbao town in Shangxi province, three kilometers long approximately, sitting at the both sides of the Qi river.

We even have no idea about whether the Huangbao kiln is the Dingzhou kiln or not as The Classic of Tea mentioned. But according to the General geography of Hsin T'ang Shu, there were three big kilns set at AD691, and repealed at AD701, It was so close to the position of Dingzhou kiln.

Lu Yu said in his book-The Classic of Tea, the quality of porcelain bowls shoule be the celadon that were not enough good to Yueh kiln, but superior than Shouzhou and Hongzhou kilns. If we compared the celadon bowl of Hongzhou kiln with the celadon of Dingzhou kiln, we could find they were similar.

The product of Huangbao kiln in flourishing Tang dynasty (618-907) were steel grey or offwhite, as well as white-, yellow-, grey-celadon. Some of them were pure and close to the Yueh kiln.

We saw the excavated ware from this area, they were fired for a long time, there were three-colouredware, celadon, ceramic whiteware, blackware, tea foam ware, flower ware, black glazed ware,green color and craft, craft white-Hecai,green glazed celadon, tire-black flowers, etc. The shape of ware contained mess kit, wine set, teaware, toiletry, lamps and lanterns,treasures of the study. curatorial utensils, religionary utensils, musical instruments, toys for children, ringer, celadon lei vessels, tea grinder chute, tea grinder wheel, etc.

(28) Celadon bowl, height 6.9cm, caliber 19.8cm, bottom diameter 8-8cm, excavated at Huangbao kiln ancient ruins.

Sunflower-mouth, narrow rim, curl wall, nephrite disk feet, there are five nicks formed a flower shape, fulling of green glaze inside, feet showed the steel grey paste.

(29) Ceramic white bowl, height 7.7 cm, caliber 17.6 cm, bottom diameter 10.4 cm, excavated at Huangbao kiln ancient rains.

Wide-mouth, valgus lip, curl wall,round feet. There is a triangle vestige in the center of bottom for fire. White glaze both side with white paste feet, tiny line crackled decoration in part.

(30) Yellow porcelain bowl, height 7cm, caliber 18cm, bottom diameter 9cm,excavated at Huangbao kiln ancient ruins.

Wide-mouth, narrow rim, skew wall. Fulling of yellow glaze inside, feet showed the white paste and engobe covered on it

Gong kiln

Gong kiln is a generic term of ancient kilns such as Shifang Tang in Nanhe, Wayao hill in Guyi, Dayu village in Baihe, Jianzi hill in Xihe, all of them belonged to the Gongzhou in the old, so we called it as "Gong Kuln".

From Southern Dynasty to Sui Dynasty, this kiln manufactured celadon and be at its peak in Tang Dynasty, stopped at late of Northern-Song Dynasty, It was one of the famous ceramic kilns The major color of vessels such as celadon, brown spot celadon, green-glazed and colored-ceramics. These main groups of figurines were produced such as life appliance, teaware,toiletry, lamps and lanterns,treasures of the study, tignum, toys for children,models of people, animals, figures.

A great number of excavation reflected the rich of human being's life in Sichuan province. Different producing levels could meet the needs of different social classes.

(31) Green glazed flat feet sunflower low belly bowl, height 4cm, caliber 14cm, collected by Ancient Ceramic Museum of Gong kiln

Thin rim, curl wall, flat feet. Five nicks on the rim and form a sunflower Full of green glaze inside, unglazed feet and the paste is tawny.

(32) Green glazed flat feet deep belly bowl, height 6cm, caliber 10cm, collected by Ancient Ceramic Museum of Gong kiln.

Wide-mouth,sharp lip, curl wall, bottom is constringency, flat feet. Full of green glaze inside, unglazed feet and the paste is sandy beige.

(33) Colored flat feet puckered belly bowl, height 4.5cm, caliber 11.5cm, collected by Ancient Ceramic Museum of Gong kiln.

Wide-mouth, puckered lip, bottom is constringency, flat feet,green glaze, tawny paste, beige engobe inside, drawing great, point and lump coloured drawing or pattern both side.

(34) Chinese flowering apple cup, height6.3cm, caliber 14.5 x 8.8cm, collected by Ancient Ceramic Museum of Gong kiln.

Wide-mouth, sharp lip, oval belly, curl petal belly, the bottom is broadening formation, yellow glaze in greenish, russety paste, beige engobe inside. Full of glaze inside, green painted around lip rim. The manufactured method is throwing by hand, so it is nature and vividly.

(35) Green glazed yi, height 12.5cm, caliber 22cm, collected by Ancient Ceramic Museum of Gong kiln.

Wide-mouth, puckered lip, curl wall, bottom is constringency. A handle is upside of belly with pearl decoration, the head piece and the handle are 90 degrees, show total function of vessel to Full of green glaze inside with the mahogany paste of feet.

Ou Kiln

The Ou kilns lies in the southern part-Xishan of Zhejiang province m the Wenzhou area. The body of On porcelain was white with a hint of grey. The glaze was light green and with high transparence.

With such solor and luster, products of the Ou kilns were also calles Piao porcelains, for their unpredictable beauty. The Du kilns produced many categories such as jars, spittoons, wine pots, incense burners, cups, bowls, flasks, cases, writing-brush basins, dishes, handle-less cups, pots, wine cups, flat bowls, basins and so on. The decoration of kiln used lots of raised line design and lotus patterning in a great number,, the usual method was scoring the lotus patterning on the cups, bowls, pots, jars, bowl stands and so on. Hecai (brown color) decoration is the other characteristic of Ou kiln with multiform shape, some of them decorated brown glaze around or several rounds, some of them composed kinds of patterns used brown glaze. They also used the brown glaze to write on the porcelains.

Archaeology showed us there were so many products of Ou kiln in the funerary porcelain in Nanjing, Jiangsu province. We also found some exquisite porcelain in the large scale tomb, after comparing, it improved that the sway of Ou kiln surpassed Yueh kiln.

Wenzhou in Tang Period, with its peaceful society and increasingly wealthy, porcelain got further improved, no matter the quantity or the scope of production surpassed the pass, and reached Rui'an, Taishun, Lishui, Longquan etc. The major of products still were living goods such as bowl, plates, bottles, pots, jars, basins, lamps, etc. The grey white paste was exquisite, clean, well-proportioned and delicatamente. Full of green glaze with ungalzed feet, plat bottom and low feet, some of jade style, some of scratching flower decoration.

(36) Celadon jade bottom bowl, height 4.4cm, Caliber14.9cm, bottom diameters5.7cm, collected by Wenzhou Museum.

Wide-mouth, skew wall, jade bottom. Upright style, compactness grey white paste. Full of grey green yellowing glaze, it thin, clean, well-distributed and shining.

Tang San Cai (three color polychrome-glazed)

The three color polychrome-glazed porcelain in Tang Dynasty we called it as "Tang San Cai". It developed basing on the low temperature of lead glaze in Han Dynasty, As an improvement of the lead-glaze pottery of Han Dynasty, it had bodies made of white pottery clay and covered in low-temperature glaze which contained lead. The glaze itself was mixed with iron, copper, manganese, cobalt and other metals as coloring. The lead galze was a different composition to that of earlier period which was applied raw, for the Tang glaze was fritted, resulting in a bright and transparent glaze, reminiscent of glass. The main colors of Tang pottery were green, brown and white, often used together in the famous "San Cai" combination. They were looked flamboyance, nature, vivid, shining and subtle nuance similar to the clothes style in Tang Dynasty.

The fashion ware in Tang Dynasty were funerary ware mostly. It was a common phenomenon to bury people with lots of ware,and there were so many expressly stipulated (in writing) pointed and ordered different officials got different funeral status. We can find the details and certifications according to the historical data. And some ware were excavated from the royalty grave which made by professional official kiln especially.

There was a story reflected this phenomenon, In capital of Chang'an city during Tang Dynasty, the ware shop compared their lethal weapon for finding whose ware was better than counterparty thousands of people were watching the The lethal weapon means the ware for funerary, so we can know about people could buy their funerary ware in the specialized shop.

There were many category polychrome-glazed porcelain such as architecture, furniture, animals, human beings, etc as the funerary ware. Especially the shape of figures showed us the exact social life such as rich-dames, officials, the common people in Tang Dynasty.

Except the big ones were funerary ware, there still had living ware such as bottles, pots, jars, bowls, cups, basins, lamps, pillows, etc. Also, they got difference between royal court and common people.

(37) The three color polychrome-glazed bowl, height7.4cm,caliber 17.2cm, Excavated from grave of Princess of Yongtai in Qianxian town of Shanxi province.

Wide-mouth, straight wall,raised line design out of the bowl, round feet. Exquisite shape presents a liquid feeling with primrose yellow glaze both side, several green and brown lines to make it nature and vividly. The base is white and morbidezza.

This one too big to consider as a tea drinking vessel. The similar shape such yellow trays with twistable glazed bowl and green trays with twistable glazed bowl as tea-drinking vessels will be great.

(38) Yellow trays with twistable glazed bowl, height 4.5cm, collected by Tokyo, Japan's national museum.

Wide-mouth, low belly, round feet, a convex raised line trays with twistable design in the middle of belly, full of yellow glaze, color is shining and flamboyance, lines are clear, so it is an competitive products.

Trays with twistable glazed, we also call it as "Jiaoni" (twistable mud), mixed the white and brown mud together, shape them as twist or cut them into pieces, then stick these on the wares, glaze it after all of these procedures. So many new decorational craft, methods came out in Tang Dynasty, the trayers with twistable riding horse figures excavated from Yide prince's tomb in Qianxian town of Shanxi province is the most exquisite. The manufactures of Gongxian in Henan province were alto this kind of style.

(39) Green trays with twistable glazed bowl, height 4.5cm, collected by Tokyo, Japan's national museum.

Wide-mouth, low belly, round feet, full of green glaze both side, color is fabulous, lines are clear.

Many Tang San Cai kilns were found such as Gongxian town kiln in Henan province, Huangbaoyao kiln in Tongchuan of Sichuan province, Jiezhuang kiln in Huiyuan town of Shanxi province. But we still couldn't figure out where is the manufacturing location of the excavated wares of Tang San Cai. We have to lie our hope to the archaeologists discovery and hard work about the large-scale kiln of Tang San Cai in the future.

Ding kiln

Production sites of Ding kilns were found in present Quyang County, Hebei province. Quyang County belonged to Dingzhou region when we trace back to Song Dynasty, hence the name Ding kilns.After the founding of the People's Republic of China, archaeologists did lots of work on finding and excavating the ancient wares, they made sure that Tang Dynasty was the beginning of firing porcelain in Jianci village of Quyang.

The early wares of these excavation were flat bottom bowl with rude paste, grey color, white glaze inside, yellow glaze outside, engobe was in the middle of glaze and paste,there were similar characteristic of other kiln as same period. The later white glaze bowls were low belly without radian, white paste, glazed both side. This is the typical style of Tang bowl, we can see them in the other kilns. Some changes of bowl shape during the late-Tang to Five Dynasties, a little radian of wall with round lip, we called it as "Chunkou bowl", Definitely similar to the white porcelain made by Xing kiln.

(40) White glaze Chunkou bowl, height 3.6cm, Caliberl2.5cm, ,bottom diameter 4.8cm, collected by Gugong Museum.

Low belly, wide lip-rim, jade wall bottom, hard paste, white glaze bothside,thin and clean, untransparent. This is the typical white glaze teaware style after the Mid-Tang dynasty. The procedure of lip-rim as follows: after the jiggering and molding done. turn over the lip-rim and agglutinate them, it will present a canvex thick rim. This type of bowl was the early example which concentrated on the relationship between tea-dinking and design of lip-rim.

Teaware excavated from the Famen Temple

April, 1987, Famen Temple in Fufeng town of Shanxi province rebuilt their pagoda, found thousands of precious cultural relic when they cleaned the column foot of the underground palace. According to the record of "matters account"tablet a group of teaware contained as follows: grinder,tea sieve, spoon and so on for seven pieces, a pair of silver glass tea bowl stand. some of teaware carved the name of Tang Xizong's nickname "Wu Ge"sample. All of these teaware were made by Wensiyuan for royal court. Emperor Xizong used these as an oblation to the Famen Temple because of the prevalent believes in Buddhism.

A complete set of teaware was the ware of release tea method record in The Classic of Tea, Fine texture, graceful decoration,magnificent, reflected the tea and tea-matters in royal court of late-Tang period conically.

(41-1) Gilt bronze swan goose emblazonry silver grinder, total height 7.1cm, horizontal length27.4cm, deep of grooves 4cm, control-board20.7cm, width3cm, weightll68g, collected by Famen Tample Museum.

Release tea was the main aspect of Tea-drinkling before the late-Tang Dynasty, Toast the tea-cake before boiling, and scrunch the tea-cake into fine grinding by grinder.

Release tea was the main aspect of Tea-drinkling before the late-Tang Dynasty, Toast the tea-cake before boiling, and scrunch the tea-cake into fine grinding by grinder.

Grinder is composed by grinder and modiolus, similar to the traditional Chinese medicine wares, just different on sizes and shapes. It was an exquisite product processed moulding, metaform, gilt bronze emblazonry. The shape of this one is rectangle, formed by grinder, control-board and pedestal. The groove is lunev-bottom, flat folded lip-rim, jointing with the groove, control-board is rectangle and can be insert into the grinder. The body and the groove is decorated by the moire and a swan goose each terminals. The wall of groove is hollow-out and decorated by the flying horse and smooth moire, "Wu Ge" sample engraved on each ware, and there is a inscription: "Wensi Yuan made this only one grinder in the tenth year of Xiautong Period," So we these were the exclusive ware for making dust tea in the royal court.

(41-2) Gilt bronze faerie riding crane of moire silver teaware (Cha Luozi), total height 9.5cm, horizontal length13.4cm, width8.4cm, length of drawer 3.4cm, widtb7.5cm, Height 2cm, length of pedestal 14.9cm, width8-9cm, Height 2cm,weight 1472g, collected by Famen Tample Museum.

Put the fine grinding tea into this mesh screen and get the even and micro mesh fine powder after the scrunch the tea-cake into fine grinding.

This is a rectangle ware composed by lid, mesh screen, drawer, shelf, ware holder. The workmanship of this was metaform and line with gilt bronze. There is a pair of Apsaras with moire on the cover. The faerie riding crane decorates all around as well as moir^. There are flying cranes on the other sides, decorated by the Basvo (banana plant) leaves pattern. There is a gauze on the step (Luo) and the drawer, the dust tea can be put under the step (Luo). There also has a ringy knop decorated by moire, A hollow-out peach decoration on the shelf of which welding under the step (Luo).

The inscription wrote, made a gilt bronze faerie riding crane of moire silver teaware (Cha Luozi) in Wensi Yuan in the tenth year of Xiantong Period, Officials Shao Yuanshen, Li Shicun, Wu Hongque, Neng Shun' Two of these pieces of wares were the exclusive wares for the royal court in Wensi Yuan in the tenth year of Xiantong Period.

(41-3) Filigree bracing cage, lengtfal4.5cm, widthO10.5cm, Height 15cm, weigh335g, collected by Famen Tample Museum.

Oval cage is knitted by silver tinsel, a flat cover with a tower made by golden tinsels to be a flower, the golden moire pressed around, the cover and the cage are combine together, both lip-rim are covered by ecaille work, gloden running spiral design decorates the rim of cage and the bale handle which is riglet shape, connects with the silver curl running spiral design feet. It is small and exquisite, magnificence. It is said that wooden board was lying on the bottom of cage when it was excavated out for keeping tea-cake apparently.

(41-4) Gilt bronze hollow-out flying bird cage, total height 17.8cm, cover highth4.6cm,cover diameter 16.15cm, belly depth 10.2cm, feet highth2.4cm, weight654g, collected by Famen Tample Museum.

Hollow-out of all cage with square edged orifice, hollow-out and pieces. First, then jointing together, gilt bronze decoration, cylindrical cage with cover, oitiiognathous, deqp belly, flat bottom,soft handle. The cover is dome, the under-rim connects with cage, fifteen birds flying entad paste on the covet 24 birds around the cage forming three loops opposite. A lap of Basvo (banana plant) leaves pattern on the upside of lip-rim, a lap of continuous flower pattern on the downside of lip-rim,fish pattern on the bottom, there are bilateral flower ears, handles on them, composed by the petal and jointed on the rim of cage bottom. Four feet made by petals, Inscriptions imprinted on the bottom side.

Above of these two cages were used for baking tea or storing tea-cake for royal court of Tang.

(41-5) Gilt bronze capricorn three feet silver salt table, total height 27.9cm, plate diameter16.1cm, Height of feet shelfl6.8cm, weight654g, collected by Famen Tample Museum.

This is a special shape so different with the salt jar mentioned by Lu Yu in The Classic of Tea, This could be effected by the foreign culture, got the perfection of the material characteristics. It composed by cover, plate, three feet shelf- The cover looks like a resupinate lotus leaf,nature and vividly, bud of lotus is the midheaven button. There is a gemel to open and close in the button, a flower in the middle of the cover, a capricorn pattern decorates the plane of cover. The three feet shelf jointing with the table board, shelf made by curl silver,four branches hand out from the shelf and holding two capricorn cast, two wisdom ball with lotus seeds bed, fire patterns arounding the ball with down flower pattern. There also has a inscription as follow. made one golden silver salt table in Wensi Yuan in the nineth year of Xiantong Period. Officials Wu Hongque, Neng Shun".

Capricorn, is a word "Makara" of Sanskrit, it is a big fish in the sea, boat can be put inside, such like whales. It is also an animal in Hindu mythology, appared in the myth, architectures and arts of ancient India. Capricorn patterns should be affected by the Indian culture which appeared in Chinese wares at late-Tang Dynasty and later, espacially on the golden silver wares. Because of the excavation of Rumberger in Afghanistan and the Samarkand in Central Asia also used this pattern, we can not rule out the probability of coming from the Central Asia.

(41-6) Gilt bronze silver tortoise box, total length28.3cm, width15cm, total Height 13cm, weighth 820.5g, collected by Famen Tample Museum.

Ahead tortoise curled its tail, Vividly image and nature. It is the dust tea vessel according to the record of "Matters Account".

Tortoise is a symbol of longevity as a mascot in China history bacause of its powerful vitality. It is said that tortoise had a millenary life span, so ancient used it to many vessel shapes. The old seals no matter matal or jade always used tortoise. The silver tube was a container of bargaining chip of tea-drinking fashion in Tang Dynasty which excavated from the underground grave of Dingmao Bridge in Dantu of Jiangsu province, the shape was similar to this gilt bronze silver tortoise box, but that tortoise holding a tube, there was a notch of four characters as "jade candle of die Analects" outside of tube, So we can see that the exquisite tortoise shape vessels were gaining favor widely no matter in common people or in the royal court.

(41-7) Gilt bronze silver Ze (spoon) with flying bird, lengthl9.2cm, weight44.5g, collected by Famen Tample Museum.

This was a measure spoon when release the tea according to The Classic of Tea. The face of spoon is ovate and little cancave. The handle is porolate with wide rectangle top and narrow following. The face of handle is a little ridgy, gilt broaze and flowerish totaly. There are two flying bird decorated with moire at the top. rhombus pattern composed by the connected balls at the following, cruciate flowers inlaied on the middle.

(41-8) Tied chain silver chopsticks, length 27.6cm, diameter0.25-0.26cm, weight76.5g. collected by Famen Tample Museum

Silver chopsticks used for holding or push the charcoal in the draft furnace when boiling tea according to The Classic of Tea, This pair of chopsticks is sylinder shape, thick top and thin groove, smooth totally. There is a cancave groove under the top ball for 5cm, two silver slices hooped on the body of chopsticks, also, connected to the long chain with the little ties.

(41-9) Pistachio galss bowl and its standing without decoration, total height 5.3cm. Height of bowl 4.6cm, caliber 12-7cm, collected by Famen Tample Museum.

Wide-mouth, lip-rounding, bevel edge of belly, little flat bottom, blow molding without decoration, pistachio, transparent totally, unvisual air mark. It was believable that these were coming from the Chinese handcrafts according to the professional textual research.

(41-10) Sunflower Mi Se porcelain bowl. Height 9.4cm, caiber21.4em, bottom diameter 9.9cm. collected by Famen Tample Museum

Wide-mouth, deep belly, round feet, convex pattern on the wall below the five flexual rims, bevel edge of belly. Thin paste, Ml of steel green glaze, crystal and burnish of kind of jade-like stone. There is a moulage of pressures of wrapping paper.

There are so many explanation about the Mi Sc porcelain (secret colour ware)since Northern-Song Dynasty before found the Mi Se porcelain of Famen Tample. There was a poem written by Lu Kueimeng of Tang Dynasty: Yueh kilns starts with autumn wind and dewdrop in September, win the jade green color of thousands of mountains pouring in together. This made many people thought the Mi Ci porcelain was the Yueli kilns ware. Lu Yu also inthroned the Yueh wares in his The Classic of Tea, Xing wares looked like silver, Yueh wares looked like jade, Xing wares had the feeling of snow, It is celebrated in verse by the Tang poet Lu Kueimeng: "Yueh ware, clear as the autumn sky. Robs a thousand peaks of their verdant hue." Yueh wares had the feeling of ice, and the best is Yueh celadon as teaware, so Yueh celadon was Mi Se porcelain.

The Object of Account in the underground palace of Famen Temple recorded definitely "...gived...seven wares of Mi Se porcelain bowls to. This is the ealiest record we can found about the Mi Se porcelain. According to the tablet inscriptions discovered in the underground palace, the most extravagant ceremony took place during the 14 th year of the reign of Tang Yizong in 873 A.D.. This was also the last time of the imperial worship. It took two years to make preparations for the ceremony. At that time when the ceremony was about to take place, much activity was seen along the road for over 100 kilometers, from the capital city, Chang'an, to the Famen Temple. Horses, jewelrys and other precious stones, pearls, ritual apparatus and carts never ceased moving to and from and people set up food stalls along both sides of the road, so the pilgrims could enjoy whatever they liked, Buddha's finger bones were guarded by the royal guards armed with swords and staffs. The Guard of Honor was composed of over 10,000 people. All the court officers and officials were part of the ceremony, However,three months after me greeting ceremony for Buddha's finger bone Tang Yizong passed away. Emperor Xizong, his son, retimed the finger bone to the Famen Temple and closed the underground palace. This was last activity about the Buddha's finger bone in Tang Dynasty. According to this record, Mi Se porcelain vessels should be produced in AD874 at least

Archaeological excavations reveal that Mi Se porcelain was fired at a kiln at the Shanglin Lake in Cixi, Zhejiang Province.