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Teaware Used for Dian Cha Method - The Dian Cha Method Records According to the Historic Data

Tea-drinking customs in Tang Dynasty concluded rude tea, loose tea, dust tea cake. Rude tea should be shreded, loose tea should be fire dry, dust tea should be baked, tea cake should be smashed before boiling. The boiling method just same even though the processing method was so different.

There was a new fashion that put the dust tea into the tea cup, then put boiling water and stirred it to pasty, then put hot water, into cup again, we called this method as "Dian cha method".

The earliest record of Dian Cha method was in the Sixteen Soup Taste (Shiliu Tangpin) written by Su Ji in Tang Dynasty. Put hot water into cup to form a tea-soup. Su Ji assorted the soup taste as 16 categories. Superb skill man can make the tea formed different patterns according to controling the speed and points of affusion, the gradation of tea soup, drinker can read or compose a poem due to the pattern. Liu Yuxi was a litterateur in late-Tang Dynasty had a poem named "Tasting Tea in Western Mountain Song". Lu Tong wrote a poem:"wind keep blowing, white foam are shining' All of these were describing the situation of foam in the cup when the hot watar pulled into just like the lunt drifting round like the cloud rask, the form coming out like the snow in winter.

The most important difference between Dian Cha method and Release Tea method is the soup vase. There is a definite soup vase of Tang Dynasty excavated from the Wang Miagzhe's tomb in Xi'an, Ink inscription as "Teahouse vase of Lao Dao family", it was written at AD829 The vase is a rounding belly, pipe socket, head piece on the thick shoulder by one side, on the other side, handle connecterd with the rim and the shoulder. Hence it is different from the fashion teaware in Tang Dynasty obviously. But there were so many kilns produced this kind of vases both north and south of China when the Dian Cha method come into vogue at the late-Tang to Five-Dynasties.

The vessels used for Dian Cha Method

Dian Cha method rised at the late-Tang to Five-Dynasties, and became the mam fashion of tea-drinking in the Song Dynasty. People judged their ability of tea-skill depend on the quantum and constancy of foam. They called it as "Fighting Tea"

The major of Dian Cha method such as soup vase, black glazed cup tea spoon, tea should be scrunched into dust tea at first.

Xie zhan, using the hot water to make the cup warm, tea foam couldn't inosculated with the soup if the cup was cold.

It should be concetrated on the proportion of tea and water no matter when you release tea or Dian Cha, the standard quantum is one "Qian".

Pull soup, use the soup vase pull some hot water into the cups.

Stirring use the tea spoon stirring to make the dust tea and hot water mixed pasty.

Adding water, pull the hot water into the cup directly, meanwhile, pay attention to the proportion of tea and water.

Brush and hitting, use the spoon brush and hit the foam to make it floating on the water surface.

Done, white tea foam floating on the water surface is the perfect tea, without washmarking is the standard.

Yueh kilns

Tang to Five Dynasties was an important developed period of Chinese ceramic history. The Tang Empire was at its height of power up until the middle of the 8th century, when the An Shi Rebellion (December 16, 755-February 17, 763) destroyed the prosperity of the empire. After the An Shi Rebellion, the autonomous power and authority accumulated by the jiedushi in Hebei went beyond the central government's control. Cities in the Jiangnan region to the south, such as Yangzhou, Suzhou, and Hangzhou prospered the most economically during the late Tang Dynasty. To thrive and be prosperous Yueh kilns ware were based on these. Fire craft techniques and the excellent geographical environment provided the necessary conditions for continuous improvement of appearance of delicate perfect celadon. Kinds of new shape such as tea, tableware, stationery, toys, musical Instruments, bottles, cans, etc. All of these are exquisite modeling and change greatly. Opened a new realm of ceramic aesthetic, the quality of products and the production scale surpassed the previous generations.

Soup vase produced by mid-Tang Dynasty, added the flow-mouth(Liu) and holder on the ex-shoulders. To appear of soup vase showed that people realized it should be improved on some vessels to adapt to the change of life, also, some changes in life had effected on the change of vessels.

(42) Green glazed soup vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 13.4cm, caliber5.9cm, bottom diameter 7.3cm, collected by Palace Museum.

Excavated from the wife of Beihai nobility tomb at 1936, in Shaoxing of Zhejiang province, a definite brick inscrinption recorded it belonged to the wares in AD810. This one is wide-mouth, round belly, polyhedron and short flow-mouth, low feet Full of green glaze and tiny line crackled decoration, transparent and totally clean, smoothly.

The surface of vessel is clean, plump and generous, go with the rich and distinguished fashion and get the distinct characteristics of Tang Dynasty.

(43) Green glaze ridged melon vase, Tang Dynasty.Height 20.4cm, caliber8.8cm, bottom diameter 9.4cm, collected by Palace Museum.

Curl lip, short neck, oval belly, round feet.A short flow-mouth on the side of shoulder, a curl handle connected with the other side of shoulder, two ring-shaped tie on the corresponding-each-side. Four lines of ridged melon should be pressed by instruments.full of green glaze both side without glazed feet

The shape of this vase is new and unique, is the typical ware of Yueh kilns in Tang Dynasty.

Yuezhou kiln

During the Eastern Han period, the wares of Yuezhou kilns had been famous , and expanded their location. From the Eastern Han Dynasty to Tang Dynasty, all of Yuezhou kilns fired celadon(some of brown glaze and brown-point glazed ceramics). Lots of them were daily use such as bowl, plates, bottles, pots and jars. Although Lu Yu thought Yuzhou kiln wares were better than Shouzhou and Hongzhou kilns, but its output could not get in touch with Yueh Kilns. During the An Shi Rebellion, so many northern people moved to the south, some of them went to Hunan province. The people of the north took their tri-colored porcelain, golden and silver wares and so many Technics when they moved, provided the opportunity for the rise of Changsha kiln and laid the foundation for then burned the underglaze color porcelain.

(44) Green glaze plattery soup vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 16cm, caliber7.1cm, bottom diameter 6.6cm, collected by Palace Museum.

Plattery mouth, narrow neck, smooth shoulder, long round belly, curl round feet, the space between the plattery mouth and shoulder gets big changes. A curl handle connected with the other side of shoulder, two ring-shaped tie on the corresponding-each-side. Full of green glaze, well-proportion and tiny line crackled decoration, transparent and totally clean, smoothly.

Total look especially of the plattery mouth got the shape of Sui Dynasty, and the smooth shoulder made people feel the beauty and characteristics of Tang Dynasty strongly. As the teaware, all of the functional factor had been reflected already.

Shouzhou Kilns

There were no such good comments on the Shouzhou kilns in The Classic of Tea, but the quality of product got improved obviously after Lu Yu's criticize. Tang people who fell in love with it did lots of researches on teawares, this was another reason why it could be improved.

It was well-know because of its yellow glazed porcelain of Shouzhou kilns. The workmanship and techniques of firing got big progress at mid- and late-Tang Dynasty. Before the base got be fired, wiped the engobe and fired it, after that, glazed and fired again, changed the quontam fire method to oxidize-fire method, this improved the quality of products. The glaze was transparent glassiness with tiny crackled decoration, well-proportion color and great shining. The preform method of the Shouzhou kiln wares concluded throwing, moulding, handmade, round ware was throwing, handle and mouth used moulding way, toys always made by handmake.

(45) Yellow glaze soup vase, Tang Dynasty, Height 23.2cm, caliber 10.4cm, bottom diameter 9.6cm, collected by Museum of Anhui province.

Pipe socket, round lip, short neck, roundish belly, flat bottom. Eight angular short flow mouth, there is a oblate circle handle on the other side, and two ties on the symmetrical sides. The shape is generous and terse. The total body is pure yellow glazed as the typical soup vase of Shouzhou kilns, clean and shining.

(46) Black glazed soup vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 21.3cm, caliber8.7cm, bottom diameter 7.7cm, collected by Museum of Anhui province.

Pipe socket, round shoulder, short neck, long roundish belly, flat bottom. Several angular short flow mouth, a oblate circle handle on the symmetrical side, wiped the engobe before the base got be fired, then black glazed to the end of belly with white hard base of unglazed feet, The surface looks shining and jade-like stone, embellish and bright as the typical of black glazed porcelain of Shonzhou kilns.

(47) Yellow glaze soup vase with two ties, Tang Dynasty. Height 21.9cm, caliber6.3cm, collected by the National Museum of China.

Short neck, roundish lip, smooth shoulder, straight belly barrel-shape. A short flow mouth on one side of shoulder, six raised line design on the mouth, double crossed circle handles on the other side, a pair of symmetrical crossed circle agglutinate. There are net pattern decoration occupy the 2/3 of vase body, this pattern always be called "Xi wen"(mat pattern), it is made by the potetr'shom when the potter'shorn beats around Yellow glazed to the end of belly with wheat paste of unglazed feet. The surface looks simple, special and much more like the vase when we compare it to the wares of other kilns ware at same time.

Hongzhou kilns

Hongzhou kiln sited at Fengcheng in Jiangxi Province at late-Tang Dynasty to Five Dynasties, just because the politics, economics, it discomposed. There were so many forests and mountains, the coal and porcelain clay were rich in the old time after hundreds of years of firing and producement. The unearthed articles and objects include blue porcelain jars, bowls, cups, basins, inkstones, big and small cups, dou (stemmed bowls), incense burners, broad-mouthed pots, dishes and seven-in_one basins, all of fine quality, and brightly and smoothly glazed compared to the old ones. The diversified variety of products, with unique models, and well-balanced and exquisite patterns and decorations, shows that Hongzhou porcelain had reached a new technical height during Tang Dynasty. The shapes of the saggars of various periods show obvious differences. But they were work rough and without sufficient stale and lakeshore, made it looked like not exquisite than ever before. The color of glaze were charcoal grey, taupe, gray, hoary, etc. Generally speaking, ware always glazed inside, glazed to the end of belly with white hard paste of unglazed feet, no engobe between glaze and paste, rough and unshining. They proved that the kiln used the saggar technique not later than the Western Jin Dynasty, pushing the time back a long way, and collapes more or less at that period.

(48) Dark reddish brown wide-mouth soup vase, late-Tang Dynasty to Five Dynasty. Height 20.1cm, collected by Fengcheng Museum.

Little wide mouth, smooth shoulder, long roundish belly. Melon prismatic belly, there are two convex raised line design outside of the neck, fistuliform shot mouth on the other side of shoulder, a oblate circle handle on the symmetric side. The mouth and neck is dark reddish brown color, glazed to the end of belly with purple paste of unglazed concave roundish feet. The vessel shape is rough and basically as same as the ware produced by other kilns at same time.

(49) Dark reddish brown wide-mouth soup vase, late-Tang Dynasty to Five Dynasties, Height 21cm, collected by Fengcheng Museum.

Wide mouth, olive belly shape. Three raised line design at the up part of belly, a raised line design under them. Fistuliform shot mouth on the side of shoulder, a oblate circle handle on the other side, and two ties on the symmetrical sides. Round feet, yellow glazed celadon totally ending of the belly with isabeling paste of unglazed feet.

Especial shape but without the fine craft as well as unique.

Two pieces before-mentioned were the production rejects excavated from the unearth kilns, so the true products should be much better than these.

Huangbao kilns

Huangbao kilns were still on peak at late-Tang Dynasty. Its development continued till the reign of Jingkang (112364-1127) in the Northern Song Dynasty, before gradually declining afterwards. However, the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) still saw the manufacture of Yaozhoti ware in Chenlu.The original Yaozhou Kiln is located in Yaozhou, present-day Huangbao in Tongchuan, Northwest China's Shaanxi Province. Except for Huangbao, the kiln sites in surrounding areas like the villages of Lidi, Shangdian and Yuhua villages and the town of Town also belonged to the Yaozhou Kiln. Huangbao was an important porcelain-making site established in the Tang Dynasty 618-907). Some new books still call the Huangbao kilns as Yaozhou kilns, , they were only one in fact if he familiar with the historical data.

The quantity of product in Huangbao kilns were huge according to the record of unearth historical data. The clay processing got be crashed before elutriation method, it was scientific.

The preform method concluded throwing, moulding and handmake.

Many categories of the glazed porcelain based on the unearth vessels, teaware was just one of them as living goods.

(50) Dust tea glaze soup vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 20.5cm, collected by the Shaanxi History Museum

Little mouth, roundish lip, narrow neck, round shoulder, straight belly, flat feet, concave in the center of bottom. A short flow mouth on one side, an oblate circle handle on the symmetrical side, dust tea glazed totally to the end of belly with white hard paste of unglazed feet. This kind of water container was not teaware in florishing Tang dynasty. In the later this changed into Dian Chan ware among the process of the development.

The shape of soup vase changed a lot in the products of Huangbao kilns, different from the flourishing Tang Dynasty, mid-Tang, late-Tang Dynasty, small mouth to wide mouth, short neck to high neck, straight belly to roundish belly, shourt flow mouth to long flow mouth, round belly to melon prismatic belly. The change of whole shape just because the change of human beings life and needs.

(51) Dust tea glaze soup vase, mid-Tang Dynasty. Height 20.5cm, , unearthed by the Huangbao kilns

Wide mouth, curl lip, zonesthesia neck, roundish shoulder, abdomen inside to the belly, concave flat bottom. A short turbular flow-mouth on the side of shoulder.twin barrel lines compressed curl handle connected with the other side of shoulder, Dust tea glazed inside up ending to neck, ending to the bottom outside with a hint of grey white unglazed feet.

It is a typical vessel of the Mid-Tang period.

(52) Dust tea glaze soup vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 23.1cm, caliber8.5cm, bottom diameter7.5cm, unearthed by the Huangbao kilns.

Wide mouth, curl lip, zonesthesia neck, roundish shoulder, , abdomen inside to the belly, concave flat bottom. A short flow-mouth on the side of shoulder, a compressed barrel line curl handle connected with the other side of shoulder. Dust tea glazed inside up ending to neck, ending to the bottom outside with a hint of grey white unglazed feet.

(53) Black glaze soup vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 17.7cm, caliber 10cm, bottom diamctcr7.3cm, unearthed by the Huangbao kilns.

Wide mouth, roundish lip, zonesthesia ncck, roundish shoulder deep belly, flat feet. A columniform short flow-mouth on the side of shoulder, twin ties compressed curl handle connected with the other side of shoulder No glaze inside, black glaze ending to the hypogastrium with caesious paste unglazed feet.

(54) Black glaze soup vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 24.8cm, caliber9cm, bottom diameter 8.4cm, unearthed by the Huangbao kilns

Wide mouth, knife-edged roundish lip, long neck, roundish shoulder, deep belly, flat feet. A columnar long flow-mouth on the side of shoulder, twin ties compressed curl handle connected with the other side of shoulder Three raised lines design on the soulder. No glaze inside, black glaze ending to the hypogastrium with caesious paste unglazed feet.

Gong kilns

Gong kilns based on the center of Shifang Tang in Gonglai at the Tang and Five Dynasties. The decoration of Gong kilns were good at absording, utilizing the best features of others works as well as the foreign culture and Technics, to form its new traits of its own on painted porcelain.

The color of paste of Gong kilns porcelain concluded daffodil yellow, hoary, hoary red, grey-blackf brown-black, etc.The best was hoary. They were all fired at temperatures above 1, 240 degrees Celsius, the most wonderful glaze was products of Shifang Tang kiln in Gonglai. There were so many colors glaze according to the historical data as follow, viridity, bluish yellow, grey lime, green, pale green, glossy green, hoary, white fraction, blue, dark brown, dark yellow, apricot cream, tea yellow, etc. Lots of works of Gong kilns were original creations in great number of living good vessels.

The original creations after Late-Tang Dynasty were so different from the soup vase produced by other kilns obviously, such the own charecteristics of soup vase as wide-mouth, long neck, roundish shoulder, short flstuliform flow mouth, flat feet. There were also wide-mouth, convergent mouth, curl lip rim, bowl lip rim, there ware high and low, long curl mouth and ring-shaped or snatchy grinder and so on. Some of them were melon prismatis, still flat feet.

(55) Tri-color twin ties soup vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 19.7cm, caliber7.5cm, bottom diameter 10.5cm, colleted by the Museum of Gongkilns Procelain

Wide mouth, round lip, zonesthesia neck, roundish shoulder, deep belly, flat feet. A columniform straight flow-mouth on the side of shoulder, curl handle(broken) connected with the other side of shoulder, twin ties on the corresponding-each-side. Bluish yellow glaze ending to the hypogastrium with dusty pink paste unglazed feet. Tri-colored floral pattern decorated the vessel characteristically, free, bold and unrestrained, all the flamboyance showed on the simple brush stroke in Chines painting.

Ou kilns

This area was one of the ancient China's business ports after the An Shi Rebellion to the Five Dynasties; potcelain, shipbuilding, embroidery, and other hanicrafts were all booming carrying businesses here. Most of the Ou kilns were concentrated along the banks of Oujiang River.

Porcelain was the most important export product in the ancient China’s foreign trade. The export of Yueh kilns improved the export of other kilns including Ou kilns and Wuzhou kilns. Ou kilns almostly as same as the Yueh kilns at this time. There were some changes on shapes of products, elaborate well proportioned of shapes took place of the round and plump, the paste became thinner and meaner, decoration became more than before. The glaze in the early of Tang period got be a little yellow. To the late-Tang period glaze almost to be mignonette or viridescence, The quality of paste was compact and smooth, the glaze an paste connected inseparably close.

Besides the great number of green glaze, some of pottery were brown glazse, black glaze and yellow glaze. Brown glaze was used till late-Tang Dynasty to Five Dynasties.

(56) Green glaze melon prismatic bamboo pattern soup vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 11.9cm, caliber3cm, bottom diameter 5.8cm, collected by the Museum of Wenzhou city

Straight mouth and neck, plump shoulder, melon prismatic convergent underbelly, flat feet, curl tubular shape and short flow-mouth on one side, flow and flat mouth were plane, partitioned bamboo pattern handle at the straight corner of body. A light mignonette glaze both inside and outside, grey white and thin paste, pieces of glazed were fell down. This style of new vessel was manufactured with the new tea-drinking fashion in the Late-Tang Period.

(57) Green glaze fish pattern melon prismatic pattern soup vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 15.7cm, caliber6.5cm, bottom diameter6.5cm, collected by the Museum of Wenzhou city

Pipe socket-mouth, convergent neck, tipsy shoulder, oval melon prismatic pattern, low roundish feet, eight prismatics and curl long flow-mouth in one side, compressed annular handle on the other side. A convax pattern on the shoulder, as the melon pattern as the boundary, there were four tiny fish pattern scruncbed from the shoulder on the underbelly. The fish

head was upward with the downward tail, they were symmetric and smoothly decorbelly by two raised lines design at underbelly. the paste was grey white, thin and hard. Full of the light mignonette glaze both sides and well-proportioned with the fine grinding crackle glaze. This kind of fish pattern decoration was rare in the vessels of Ou kilns.

Ding kilns

It began at Tang Dynasty, flooming at Northern Song Dynasty and Jin-Dynasties, stopped at Yuan Dynasties.

The major products were bowl, basins, plates, vases of white porcelain in Ding kilns of Tang and Five Dynasties. The white glazed jade porcelain bowl was the typical products of late-Tang Dynasty, such similar as the Xing kilns. It was rough that be manufactured in the early time, put on a white engobe before glazed paste. Then smeared a transparent glaze. A tiny crackled pattern on some glazed surfaces. The white porcelain improved its exquisition at late-Tang and Five Dynasties- Excepted pay attention to the practicability, the design of shape also started to concentrate on the relationship between people and vessels, espacially the Kou (lip-rim) bowl. this phenomenon was rare in some other kilns at the same time. We can figure out there was a new tendency coming out to make the shape of bowl changing as well as the color of glazed changed.

As a huge surprise, in the tomb of the mother of Qian Mu who was a king lived in Lin'an, , Zhejiang Province, we found a sery of gold and silver inlaid the white porcelains. It was 17 pieces unearthed, the shape concluded bowls, plates, cup standings, soup vases and so on. Most of all were gold and silver inlaid on the lip-rim or the feet-rim, which marked Guan (Official) and "Xin guan" (new official). These series of white porcelain were hard and refined, the paste was thin Hnd light, transmission of light was good, fulling with white glaze, a little yellow glaze inside, the surface of glaze was soft and refinement. These white porcelain received extensive attention of the people at home and abroad after unearthed.

According to the record of inscription, the host of tomb named Mrs. Shuiqiudied at September in the first year of Tian Fu (AD901), white porcelains were her used vessels. After identified by experts, these series of white porcelain were the early products of Ding Kilns, there was an unambiguous chronogram when they were unearthed, these could provided definite datas, meanwhile, these also changed the acknowledges on the past early products of Ding Kilns.

There must be had some reasons that the high officials fell in love with the white porcelain of Ding Kilns instead of the Yueh kilns ware which was well-known at that time. It related to the high officials' prodigal life and their favourite on the golden silver vessels such as the bowl and bowl standing with golden silver lip-rim as well as the mouth and cover of pot and vase. By the textual research written by Lan Chunxiu, the white porcelain were not given by the king, they were just used on daily life by the royalty of Wu Yue Country.

(58) White porcelain melon prismatic vase with golden cover, Late-Tang Dynasty. Height 13.7cm, caliber 4.5cm, bottom diameter 6cm, collected by Lin'an Committee for the Protection of Antiquities and Monuments

Without neck, low mouth, wide rim, roundish lip, smooth shoulder, deep belly, shourt flow-mouth, faLt bottom. The shape of body was naturely oval melon with eight seamed edges, the biggest diameter was below the middle of belly. There were three timy raised lines design near the mouth on the shoulder, a silver button near the mouth-rim. A short flow mouth was silver covered on the golden eight seamed edges, a 1cm wide golden lace near the root segment of flow-mouth. Oblate handle bars on the other side run paralleled to the mouth. The central button of cover was golden cylinder, a circle golden lace decorated the underside of cover to make sure the cover and the body can inosculate colsely. Without galze no matter the body inside or cover inside or the smoothly bottom outside, total outside body was white glazed with a little yellow color and some bule shadow, pure white and exquisite. A characta "Guan" engraved on the bottom outside.

(59)White porcelain cup standing with gold button, late-Tang Dynasty. Cup: Height 4.2cm, caliber 8.2cm, standing: highth 4.2cm, caliber 16.6cm, bracket: highth 1.7cm, diameter 5.6cm, collected by Lin'an Committee for the Protection of Antiquities and Monuments

The cup was straight mouth, roundish curl lip, curl roundish belly, low roundish feet. There was a moulding dragon handle om the one side, a cloud on the top of the dragon to make the top of handle a little higher than the rim of cup. The quality of paste was white, clean and exquisite. The milky white glaze both inside and outside was suave, shining. A character "Xin Guan" (new official) engraved on the bottom outside.

The cup standing was a roundish and curl lip, low belly, high roundish feet. A higher concave brancket as an cylinder in the center of tray. High round feet curl outward, an engraved character "Xin Guan"was next to a small hole. Total body were white glazed, the surface of glaze was clean, smooth, exquisite and compact. was noblest for its golden lip-rim and golden feet-rim.

Changsha Kilns

Changsha kilns was one of the famous kilns in Southern China which were famous for inventing the underglaze technique. But there were less records on the historical data. The kiln site is now located nearby the Shizhu Lake by the Tongguan Town, Wangcheng Country, Changsha city.It was called Shizhu since very early and was recorded in The History of Jin Dynasty, A large number of Kiln worker from the north moved here and made porcelain with the local people, then it was called Shizhu Kiln, Four Chinese characters are on the porcelain tray form the Changsha Kiln which was salvaged form a sunken Indonisian ship Black Stone. Hunan poet Li Qunyu called called the kiln Shizhu when he described the kiln's prosperous scene in his poem:" Using clay to make utensils, Setting big trunks on fire;The flame tints the river red, The smoke blends into Dongting clouds ……"

Since the founding of the People's Republic, when the archeologists rediscovered Changsha Kiln of Tang Dynasties at the west bank of Xingjiang River in Tongyin town. Ten miles away they discovered Changsha kilns sites after hard working so many year.

It proved that the kilns decayed in the Five Dynasties (707-960), and they were forgotten after the Song Dynasty. People forgot its flourishing sight until the fifties in this century.

The major products of the Changsha kilas were green glaze ware, , mainly common house wares like pots and jars, also concluded some small scuptures. The most prominent achievement of the Changsha Kiln was its invention of underglaze painting techaology, which exerted tremendous influences upon the underglaze decoration technologies succeeding it. In the early time, some wares were painted a plaque which made by metal or copper material on the orcelain paste, they change into brown and green plaque after fired. The combination of color plaque with moulage and applique pattern, then developed to the uinderglazed porcelain ware. This was a kind of high temperature fired method only once. The distinctive artistic feature of the Changsha Kiln at that time was its products being the first to incorporate traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy as decorations, so these wined the abroad market, the product sells widely in tang dynasty, then become famous overseas export porcelain. Recent archeological certificates that the potters of Changsha all had the innovative spirit, it was an originate creation that flambe glaze be fired out.

(60) Green underglazed brown teabownl, Tang Dynasty. Height 5.4cm, caliber 15.4cm, unearthed at Changsha Kilns

A little convergent mouth, knife-edged roundish lip, the section was circular-arc-shaped. Round convergent belly, jade wall bottom, engobe was on the clean paste, a character "CHAWA" (Tea bowl) was written on the bottom inside. Bluish yellow glazed outside of bowl barring the bottom. This kind of bowl discovered in many kilns of Changsha, just different sizes and shapes.

(61) YUeLu temple bowl, Tang Dynasty. Height 4.8cm , caliber 13.5cm, unearthed at Changsha Kilns

Wide-mouth, sideling convergent belly, jade wall bottom and flat in center. Engobe was on the clean paste, five characters "YUE LU SI CHA WAN" (YueLu Temple Teabowl) was written on the bottom inside. Put the transparent straw yellow glaze totally except the bottom rim with characters as"Zhang Xi Maintain in Yongchong".

Lushan Temple located at the ancient forest of Mount Yuelu. It is one of the most ancient temples of Hunan building in Western Jin Dynasty. Yuelu Temple with a history of over 1000 years, Aiwan Pavilion-one of four famous pavilions, Kings' Tombs of Western Han Dynasty, Beijin Town of Three Kingdoms(220-265AD)etc-In AD268, Buddhism went into the mountain, created the Yuelu Temple, thel amps never extinguished from then on, and the Dao Lin Templet Nantai Temple Xilin Temple, Jingde Temple, etc were built gradualy. The temple enjoys great fame in the region and is renowned as the " first key point of interest From Han and Wei Dynasties", In the late-Tang Dynasty to Five Dynasties was a war period many scholars and literate person come to the mountain for avoiding the war they brought lots of books and built lots of rooms so they could read and learn, this was the precursor of Yuelu Academy. We can see from the data, this bowl was devoted by the Buddhists for numbers of the scholar. This bowl was a ware of mass produce.

Above-mentioned of these two bowls occupied the majority of gross of Changsha Kilns, so the teaware was the major products of Changsha Kilns. It was worth to notice that the discovery ware which signed the characters as "CHA WAN", "YUE LU SI CHA WAN" provided the definite proof of Changsha kilns wares. The shape of other bowls were vicissitudinous, also as well as the decoration. Recent archaeological discovery found a green glaze bowl signed as a poem: "lived by the green pond, learn how to picking lotus, water is deep, lotus moving near because of my ship." It is 4.2cm high, , the caliber is 13.5cm, bottom diameter is 5.2cm, the characters were the calligraphy in irregular inscript style.

(62) Green glaze brown stain applique flower vase, Tang Dynasty. Height 17.9cm , width 16.2cm, , collected by Hong Kong Flagstaff House

Open-top mouth, one rhombohedral-shaped short running on its shoulders, with one handle, the tie-button was three-ply parallel circularity and symmetrical as same shape as handle. There were three contour forging appliques, two of them were birds, the mid-one was palm tree planted in the fence. The brown glaze decayed almost, the base was thin and light, the shape was cute, it was early name of Changsha Kilns.

(63) Undergalzed color flower and birds pattern vase, late-Tang Dynasty. Height 22.7cm, collected by Palace Museum.

Open-top mouth, high wide neck, melon prismatic belly, one rhombohedral-shaped short running on its shoulders with one handle, flat bottoms brown glazed tree and a bird at underbelly, the brown, , green lines of flower and bird were liquidy, naturely and vividly. It was a familiar decoration in Changsha kilns. This plump shape of vase was the representative work of Changsha kilns.

(64) Dark brown vase, late-Tang Dynasty. Height 18cm, private collection Open-top mouth, short neck, melon prismatic belly, flat bottom. Octahedronshaped short running on its shoulders with one ring-shaped handle, two ring-shaped tie on the corresponding-each-side. Totally dark brown glazed to the underbelly, unglazed feet with wheat yellow paste, no decorated pattern on the glaze surface.

(65) Blue-green glazed vase with horizontal handle, Tang Dynasty. Height 16cm, calider3.5cm, collected by Museum of Changsha City

Straight short mouth without neck, roundish shoulder, long oval belly, concave center of the flat bottom. Convex cover with a cone button on the top, a tie equipment on the rim of it. One rhombohedral-shaped short running on the belly with one horizontal rhombohedral-shaped handle. Totally blue green glaze, the paste was steel grey- This one got a elaborate, new and unique shape, still fashion in sado of Japan&Korea until now, The manipulation of the handle changed the water direction and showed host's inspect to the guest, only a little change on title mouth.

(66) Green glaze color porcelain cup standing, Tang Dynasty, Height 5.2cm, caliber7.6cm, bottom diameter 3cm, collected by the National Museum of China.

Cup connected with the tray, convergent mouth, curl wall, deep belly, tea tray was low, the center of bottom was concave without glaze, paste was pale yellow. Totally lightcyan glazed, three series of green glaze flowed pattern inside of the cup, some green spots on the lip of cup.

Lushan Kilns

During Tang Dynasty, Lushan kilns were in Duandian village in Lushan town of Henan Province, famous for its color porcelain ware. It produced mainly black wares and the most notable were those with milky opaque white or bluish splashes. The form of color-porcelain was accomplished by the fire of different nature of ground coat, overglaze. The ground coat is a common black glaze or flambe glaze, the overglaze is a opalescent glaze which include high contents of calcium or magnesium and low contents of aluminum. The fluidity of overglaze always better than ground coat. The temperature of firing the color porcelain should be controlled very well, by the accidental colouring, it will show the rich and varied color and fantastic vivid porcelain. According to the record of Nanzhuo's "Jie Gu Lu" in Tang Dynasty, If it wasn't the pottery made by Qingzhou mud, it must be the porcelain made by Duandian Kilns in Lushan. This kind of porcelain was rare, , but it maybe well-known extremely, one was collected by the Palace Museum. That one was full of black glaze with big white splashes. The technicians of the Palace Museum discovered several the black glaze blue splashes waist drums at Lushan kilns, this proved the reliability of Nanzhuo's "Jie Gu Lu". And a good number of vases, jars and so on were unearthed meanwhile.

(67) Black glaze with big white splashes vase, Tang Dynasty. Height28.5cm, caliber9cm, bottom diameter 8.3cm, collected by Shanxi history Museum.

Platter mouth, short neck, smooth shoulder, flat bottom, long and thin belly, A short flow mouth on one side of shoulder, compressed curl wide handle on the other side of shoulder. Besides feet, all of the body put on the black glaze ending to the bottom. Well-proportion clean glazed surface decorated by different size of sky-blue splashes, a little white inside, gleamingly.

(68) Color glaze vase, Tang Dynasty, Height30.9cm, bottom diameter 9.1cm, collected by National Museum of China.

Pipe socket, short neck, smooth shoulder, flat bottom, long and round belly. A short flow mouth on one side of shoulder, annular handle on the other side. Put the white glaze with a little green and yellow color to the underbelly, feet paste was sandy beige. The shape was neat and similar to the vases of other kilns except the shroud of mystery of glazed surface. Huangdao Kilns.

Another kiln which produced in similar type was Huangdao kiln also situated in Henan, discovered in a Huangdao village in Xiaxian Town of g Henan Province in 1946. It started to fire at Tang Dynasty, and ended at Yuan Dynasty, the products concluded white porcelain, yellow glazed porcelain, black porcelain, colored porcelain, etc, la was a little different between Huangdao kilns and Lushan kilns. We see their characters such as the color of glaze, and color splashes, the former was sky-blue mostly, a white in blue, gleamingly, or some light color-glaze, yellow in white, green in white, nature fluidity, with the different size of sporadic lump color. The latter was put the black and dark brown glaze all over, color splashes were bule, bits and pieces, the color glaze decoration always setted on the shoulders, handles, mouths, necks, unconspicuous, color splashes were inblock and tiny lines pattern. Vessels concluded vases, jars etc. Because it belonged to Xianxian Town, it also called Xianxin Kilns.

(69) Black and dark brown glaze vase with blue splashes, Tang Dynasty. Height27.1cm, caliber12.2cm, bottom diameter 12.5cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Open-top mouth, short neck, smooth shoulder, round belly, flat bottom. Concave short running flow mouth on shoulder with one ring-shaped handle connected with the shoulder, two ring-shaped tics on the corresponding-each-side. The shape was a melon. Totally dark brown and black glaze to the underbelly, unglazed feet with wheat yellow paste, three blue splashes decorated pattern on the shoulder, glaze surface. Irregular shape, the blue splashes $yncrctizcd the dark brown and black glaze, bits and pieces of blue splashes show the natural beauty to us vividly, Got the deep feeling of the artistic charm. Blue glaze decoration setted on the handles, mouths, necks unconspicuous, the shape was so concise and stylish, easy.

(70) Black and dark brown glaze vase with blue splashes, Tang Dynasty. Height 15.6cm, caliber7.5cm, bottom diameter 8.6cm, collected by Palace Museum of China.

Open-top mouth, short neck, smooth shoulder, small upside and well developed under part of the oval belly, flat bottom. A short neat running flow mouth on shoulder with two lines pattern curl handle connected with the shoulder which was paralleled to the lip-rim and shoulder, two ring-shaped ties on the corresponding-each-side. Totally black glaze to the underbelly outside of the vase, unglazed feet with grey white paste, three splashes decorated pattern near the mouth, irregular splashes decorated the belly with the blue glaze surface. Total look was small and exquisite.